Robert Destro


  • Columbus School of Law
  • Expertise

  • International Human Rights
  • Freedom of Religion
  • Speech
  • and Association
  • Bioethics
  • Robert A. Destro is Professor of Law at The Catholic University of America’s Columbus School of Law in Washington, D.C. He has been a member of the CUA Law faculty since 1982, served as Interim Dean from 1999-2001, and as Director of the University’s Institute for Policy Research and Catholic Studies from 2017-2019.

    President Donald J. Trump nominated him to serve as Assistant Secretary of State for Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor and the U.S. Senate confirmed his appointment on September 18, 2019. As Assistant Secretary, he led the State Department’s worldwide policy and foreign assistance programs on human rights and democracy issues such as free and fair elections, Internet freedom, and the growth of the surveillance state. His work on labor issues focused on State Department and inter-agency efforts to ensure that business supply chains do not include goods or services produced by slave or forced labor. He also served as the State Department’s Special Representative for Tibetan Issues.

    In the domestic sphere, Professor Destro has been an advisor to churches and religious organizations from a variety of religious traditions, and is regularly involved in cases raising civil rights issues from free speech and free exercise, to employment law and tax policy. From 2004-2006, he served as Special Counsel to then-Ohio Secretary of State, Ken Blackwell, on voting rights and election security issues. From 1983 to 1989, he served as a Commissioner on the United States Commission on Civil Rights, where he led the Commission's discussions in the areas of discrimination on the basis of disability, national origin and religion. From 1977-1982, he served as General Counsel to the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, and from 1975-1977, was an associate at Squire, Sanders & Dempsey in Cleveland. With Michael S. Ariens, he was co-author of RELIGIOUS LIBERTY IN A PLURALISTIC SOCIETY (2d ed. 2001), and is a prolific writer on legal issues.

    Professor Destro was born and raised in Akron, Ohio. He received his Bachelor of Arts Degree in 1972 from Miami University in Oxford, Ohio, and his law degree (J.D.) in 1975 from the University of California, Berkeley. He is an active member of the Bar in Ohio and an inactive member of the Bar in California. Professor Destro lives in Arlington, Virginia with his wife Brenda. They have two adult children, Gina and Mark.

    Research and Writing


    Religious Liberty in a Pluralistic Society (with Michael S. Ariens) (Carolina Academic Press, 1996; 2d ed., 2002; 3d edition forthcoming).

    Religious Liberty in a Pluralistic Society. Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 1996 (with Michael S. Ariens).


    Genocide, Statecraft and Domestic Geopolitics”, in Ronald Rychlak & Jane Adolphe, eds., THE PERSECUTION AND GENOCIDE OF CHRISTIANS IN THE MIDDLE EAST: Historical, Legal, and Policy Concerns (Angelico Press, 2017).

    Foreword, Ordinary Americans & the Politics of Power, in Robert G. Marshall, Reclaiming the Republic (St Benedict Press, 2017)

    Principal Author, Country Report, “Religious Freedom in the United States”, Aid to the Church in Need: pp. 741-48

     “Genocide against Christians in the Middle East: A report submitted to Secretary of State John Kerry by the Knights of Columbus and In Defense of Christians” (March 2016) at:

    The Ethics of Lawyers and Judges”, in Ronald Rychlak, ed., American Law 
    from a Catholic Perspective: Through a Clearer Lens (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015)
    Engines of the Ruling Party: Political Correctness, 9/11, and the Politics of Culture”, in Stephen M. Krason, ed., The Crisis of Religious Liberty: Reflections from Law, History, and Catholic Social Thought (Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2015)

    Lessons in Legal and Judicial Ethics from Schiavo: The Special Responsibilities of Lawyers and Judges in Cases Involving Persons with Severe Cognitive Disabilities, in The Criminal Justice System and Health Care (Charles A. Erin & Suzanne Ost eds., 2007) at 137-163, later published as: “Learning Neuroscience the Hard Way: The Terri Schiavo Case and the Ethics of Effective Representation”, 78 (4) Mississippi Law Journal 101-171 (2009).

    Foreword, Educing Information: Interrogation: Science and Art – Foundations for the Future (National Defense Intelligence College, Intelligence Sciences Board, Phase 1 Report (2006) at:
    John T. Ford, Robert A. Destro, Charles R. Dechert, Religion in Public Life 
    (Vol. II): Religion and Political Structures: From Fundamentalism to Public Service (Council for Research in Values & Philosophy, 2005). Note: This is an edited collection of essays. I was a co-editor, and had a Book Chapter in the volume. It appears below.
    Religion, Culture, Ethnicity and Inter-Group Tension: Meeting the Challenges of Nation-Building through a Legal Policy of Non-Discrimination” in Religion and Political Structures: From Fundamentalism to Public Service (2005) (Robert A. Destro, John T. Ford & C.R. Dechert, eds.)

    “The Politics of Church Autonomy in the United States of America” in H. Warnink, ed., The Legal Position of Churches & Church Autonomy (Peeters: Leuven 2001).
    Agostini and the Politics of the Establishment Clause, in Marshall J. Breger 
    and David M. Gordis, Vouchers for School Choice: Challenge or Opportunity? – An American Jewish Reappraisal (1998) 89-95.
    The History of the “Wall of Separation”: Church and State in Constitutional Tradition, in Marshall J. Breger and David M. Gordis, Vouchers for School Choice: Challenge or Opportunity? – An American Jewish Reappraisal (1998) 63-78.
    Equal Treatment: Implications for Nonprofit Organizations, in Stephen V. Monsma and Christopher Soper, Equal Treatment of Religion in a Pluralistic Society (1998).
    Citizenship and Community: Legacy and Challenge in T. William Boxx and Gary M. Quinlivan, eds., Law and the Free Society (Center for Economic and Policy Education, Saint Vincent College: Latrobe, 1998).
    The History of the “Wall of Separation”: Church & State in Constitutional Tradition, in Marshall J. Breger & David M. Gordis, Vouchers for School Choice, Challenge or Opportunity? An American Jewish Reappraisal (Wilstein Institute of Jewish Policy Studies, 1998) at 63-78

    Government Oversight” in Adil Shamoo, ed., Ethics in Neurobiological Research with Human Subjects: the Baltimore Conference on Ethics (Gordon & Breach Pub., 1995)
    Work: The Human Environment, in G. Weigel & R. Royal, eds. Democracy, 
    Capitalism, and Catholic Social Teaching (Eerdmans, 1993)
    "Gangs & Civil Rights" in D. Monti & S. Cummings (eds), Gangs (SUNY Buffalo Press, 1993) [published as “The Hostages in the ‘Hood” in the Arizona Law Review in 1994 – above]
    "A Non-Discrimination and Democratic Pluralism Perspective on The Role 
    of Parental Choice in the Debate Over Educational Equity" in (W. Ball, et al.eds) In Search of a National Morality (Baker Book House, 1992)"

    Review Essay, "Whose Liberty? Articles of Faith, Articles of Peace: The 
    Religious Liberty Clauses and the American Public Philosophy, edited by James Davison Hunter and Os Guinness", 8 J. Law & Religion 491 (1991)

    "Targeting the Elderly: A Non-discrimination Perspective on Daniel Callahan's Setting Limits" in Set No Limits: A Rebuttal to Daniel Callahan's Proposal to Limit Health Care for the Elderly (Book Chapter 4), (University of Illinois Press, 1991)
    "Laborem Exorcens" in A Century of Catholic Social Thought (University Publications of America, 1991)
    Guaranteeing a Minimum Quality of Life Through Law: The Emerging Right 
    to a Good Life, in Guaranteeing the Good Life: Medicine & the Return of Eugenics (R.J. Neuhaus, ed) 229 (Eerdmans, 1990), reprinted in 25 This World 73 (Spring, 1989) (Center on Religion & Society, The Rockford Institute). -- Reprinted in part, 1989 New Zealand Law Journal 318-321

    Constitutional Aspects of Medical Care Discrimination Against Children with Disabilities, in Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights: Medical Care Discrimination Against Children with Disabilities, September, 1989 (sole author of Book Chapter 8 of Commission Report).
    The Family and Public Policy in The Family Today and Tomorrow (Pope 
    John XXIII Medical-Moral Research and Education Center, Braintree, Mass. 1985).
    Religion: Establishment, Free Exercise and Abortion. The Role of Religion 
    in the Abortion Controversy, in New Perspectives on Human Abortion (D. Horan ed) (University Publications of America 1981).



    "The Supreme Court, the 'Facts of Life,' and the Moral Sensibilities of 'the Thoughtful Part of the Nation': A Review Essay of Liberty and Sexuality by David Garrow." Human Life Review 20 (1994): 28.

    "Review of Disability Discrimination in the Workplace by Gary Phelan and Janet B. Atherton." Trial 29, no. 9 (1993): 79.

    "Review of Articles of Faith, Articles of Peace: The Religious Liberty Clauses and the American Public Philosophy by James D. Hunter and O. Guinness." Christian Legal Society Quarterly 11 (Summer 1990): 16.

    "Review of Government by Judiciary by Raoul Berger." Human Life Review 4 (Fall, 1978).


    Review Essay: "Global Perspectives on Subsidiarity: On the Relationship of 
    Faith to Citizenship, Culture, and the Structure of the Public Sphere,” 39 AUSTRALIAN J. OF LEGAL PHILOSOPHY
    Erik S. Jaffe, Aaron H. Caplan, Robert A. Destro, Todd P. Graves, Alan B. Morrison, Eugene Volokh & David R. Stras, “Millennials, Equity, and the Rule of Law: 2014 National Lawyers Convention, How First Amendment Procedures Protect First Amendment Substance,” 65 CATH. U. L. REV. 185 (2016).
    You Have the Right to Remain Silent: Does the Constitution Require 
    Public Affirmation of Same-Sex Marriage?” 27-2 B.Y.U J. Pub. L. 397-440 (2013).
    Learning Neuroscience the Hard Way: The Terri Schiavo Case and the 
    Ethics of Effective Representation”, 78 (4) MISSISSIPPI LAW JOURNAL 101-171 (2009).
    Convergence & Divergence: An American Perspective on the Proposed 
    European Constitution, in 1 Direito Comparado Perspectivas Luso- Americanas (Dário Moura Vicente ed., 2006).
    Prologue, in El Sistema Matrimonial de Estados Unidos (Carmen Garcimartin Montero ed., 2006) (in Spanish, translated by the editor)

    Federalism, Human Rights, and the Realpolitik of Footnote Four, 12 
    Widener Law Review 373-457 (2003).
    “Emerging Trends in Religious Liberty During the 2000-2001 Term of the United States Supreme Court,” 8 European Journal for Church and State Research (Revue européenne des relations Églises-Etat) (2003).

    Religious Liberty and the Politics of Judicial Review: A Pre-Election Review 
    of the Cases Decided by the United States Supreme Court During Its 1999-2000 Term, 7 European Journal for Church and State Research (Revue européenne des relations Églises-Etat), 410-432 (2000).
    “Régime des cultes et liberté religieuse en Europe: relectures américaines” 
    (in French). “An American Perspective on Religious Liberty and Government Regulation of Religion in Europe.” Annales de Droit de Louvain 59, no 4 (1999): 391.
    Law and the Politics of Marriage: Loving v. Virginia After 30 Years – 
    Introduction to the Symposium, 47 Cath. U. Law Rev. 1207 (1998).

    Is Roe v. Wade Obsolete? A Commentary on Developments in Law and Biotechnology, 24 Human Life Rev. 55 (1998).
    Developments in the Law of Religious Liberty in the United States: The 1996-97 Term of the United States Supreme Court, European Journal of Church State Studies (Milan, 1998).
    Litigating Constitutional Defenses to Tort Claims: Do the Courts Take the 
    First Amendment Seriously? 37 The Catholic Lawyer 101 (St. John’s Law School, Jamaica, New York) (1997).
    Whom Do You Trust? Judicial Independence, The Power of the Purse & The Line-Item Veto,” The Federal Lawyer 44: 27 (January 1997).

    Developments in Liability Theories and Defenses, 37 Cath. Lawyer 83 355 
    By What Right?”: The Sources and Limits of Federal Court and Congressional Jurisdiction Over Matters "Touching Religion", 29 Indiana Law Review 1 (1996).
    ABA and AALS Accreditation: What’s “Religious Diversity” Got to Do with 
    It? 78 Marquette L. Rev. 427 (1995).
    The Structural Components of the Religious Liberty Guarantee”, in Symposium in Honor of Judge John Noonan, 11 J. Law & Religion 355 (1995).
    The Hostages in the ‘Hood, 36 Ariz. L. Rev. 785 (December 1994).

    Does the Constitution Encompass a Right to Define Oneself Out of Existence? An Exchange of Views, 10 Issues in Law and Medicine 183-222 (1994).
    Review Essay, The Supreme Court, the “Facts of Life,” and the Moral Sensibilities of “the Thoughtful Part of the Nation” 20 Human Life Review 28-48 (Summer, 1994) (reviewing David Garrow’s Liberty & Sexuality: The Rights of Privacy and the Making of Roe v. Wade)
    Disability Discrimination in the Workplace edited by Gary Phelan and Janet 
    Bond Arterton, Trial Vol. 29, Iss. 9, (Sep 1993) at 79.
    "What Kind of Liberty? A Review of the Religious Liberty Cases of the 
    United States Supreme Court During the 1988-89 Term" in Quaderni Di Diritto E Politica Ecclesiastica, University of Turin, Italy).
    "Making Ourselves Understood," Christian Legal Society Quarterly 10:16-
    17 (Winter, 1990).
    Developments in the Law of Church-State Relations: The 1987 Term of the 
    United States Supreme Court, in Anuario de Derecho Eclesiastico del Estado (1989) (Faculty of Law, University of Madrid).
    Federalism: Reconciling a "Human Life" and "States' Rights" Approach to the Legal Protection of the Unborn, 15 Human Life Rev. 77-90 (with Robert J. Crnkovich & Joseph E. Schmitz)
    Images of Community in the Constitutional Law of Religious Liberty, 1989 CCICA Annual (Catholic Commission on Intellectual and Cultural Affairs, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, Indiana)
    Libertad Religiosa, Igualidad y No Discriminacion en las Sistemas Juridicos Norteamericano y Español: Consideraciones Criticas (“Religious Liberty, Equality and Non-Discrimination in the Legal Systems of the United States and Spain”) (with Professor Gloria M. Moran of the University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain), in Las Relaciones Entre La Iglesia y el Estado: Estudios en Memoria del Profesor Pedro Lombardia, (Faculties of Law, Universities of Madrid & Navarra, 1989) (Spanish portions by Prof. Moran).

    Foreword, "The Religious Foundations of Civil Rights Law" and the Study 
    of Law and Religion in an Interdisciplinary Framework" in Symposium, The Religious Foundations of Civil Rights Law, 5 J. Law & Rel. 39 (1987).

    Pastoral Politics and Public Policy: Reflections on the Legal Aspects of the Catholic Bishops' Pastoral Letter on War and Peace, in Peace in a Nuclear Age (C. Reid ed. 1986), reprinted 4 J. Law & Rel. 25-61 (1987).
    Introduction: The Interdisciplinary Program in Law and Religion, Journal of Law and Religion, 1987, Vol.5(01), pp.3-4.
    "Apostolic Nuncio" New Catholic Encyclopedia, vol. 18 (1987).

    "Set Race Aside," Policy Review (Fall, 1986). 

    Equality, Social Welfare and Equal Protection, 9 Harv. J. Law & Pub. Pol. 53 (1986).
    Quality of Life Ethics and Constitutional Jurisprudence: The Demise of Natural Rights and Equal Protection for the Disabled and Incompetent, 2 J. Contemp. Health Law & Pol'y 71 (1986).
    Religious Freedom During the 1985-1986 Supreme Court Term: Adrift on Troubled Waters, 6 Religious Freedom Reporter 481 (1986).
    "The Legal Activities of the Catholic League," 27 Catholic Lawyer 224-230 (No. 3, Summer, 1982).
    Necessary Medical Care for the Retarded Child: The Case of Philip Becker, 
    (with William A. Moeller) 6 Human Life Review 81 (Fall, 1980).

    Social Values and the Federal Judiciary: The "Least Dangerous Branch" Unleashed, 6 Human Life Review 37 (Spring 1980).
    Book Review, Government by Judiciary (Berger, 1978), 4 Human Life Review (Fall, 1978).
    Foreword, Symposium: Research on the Fetus, 22 Villanova L. Rev. 297 
    "Abortion and the Constitution: The Need for a Life-Protective Amendment," 
    63 Calif. L. Rev. 1250 (1975), reprinted in part in Human Life Review (Fall, 1976).
    Note, Due Process in Parole Release Hearings, 63 Calif. L. Rev. 266 


    "Climate Change and Human Rights," Testimony before the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission, United States Congress, July 28, 2022 (Prepared Statement & Graphics) (Remarks) ()
    Root Causes of Migration: Food Insecurity and the Right to Food in Central America,” Testimony before the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission, United States Congress, Thursday, September 23, 2021
    (Prepared Statement) (Remarks)
    Conflict and Killings in Nigeria’s Middle Belt, Testimony before the Tom Lantos Human Rights Commission, United States Congress, Thursday, December 17, 2020 (Prepared Statement) (Remarks)
    “Federal Obligations to Persons with Severe Brain Injuries,” Before the Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy & Human Resources, United States House of Representatives, Tuesday, April 19, 2005.
    “Obscenity Prosecutions and the Constitution: Does the First Amendment Protect the “Sex Trade?”, Before the United States Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee on Constitution, Civil Rights, and Property Rights

    Testimony Before the House Subcommittee on Criminal Justice, Drug Policy, and Human Resources of the Committee on Government Reform on “Federal Health Programs and Those Who Cannot Care for Themselves: What are their Rights and our Responsibilities?” (April 19, 2005).
    Testimony Before the House Select Committee on Children, Youth and Families, United States House of Representatives, "Confronting the Impact of Alcohol Labeling and Marketing on Native American Health and Culture -- First Amendment Issues," Washington, D.C., May 19, 1992.
    Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the Judiciary Committee, United States House of Representatives, "The Religious Freedom Restoration Act," Washington, D.C., May 14, 1992.
    Testimony Before the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate on May 16, 1991, concerning the DHHS Rules Implementing Section 1008 of Title X of the Public Health Service Act, 42 U.S.C. §300a-6 and the free speech and medical ethics issues involved in Rust v. Sullivan, 111 S.Ct. 1759 (1991).
    Testimony Before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs, United States Senate, regarding Incidents at the White River Apache Nation (Arizona), Tribal Sovereignty and the Indian Civil Rights Act, May 19, 1989.

    Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights, Committee on the Judiciary, United States House of Representatives, on Reauthorization of the United States Civil Rights Commission, April 27, 1989.

    Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Commerce, Justice, State, the Judiciary & Related Agencies of the Committee on Appropriations, United States House of Representatives, on funding for Civil Rights Research, March 22, 1989.
    Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Compensation and Employee Benefits of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, United States House of Representatives, on the Issue of Comparable Worth in "Options for Conducting a Pay Equity Study of Federal Pay and Classification Systems", 99th Cong. 1st Sess., June 18, 1985, (prepared statement remarks, and answers to written questions).
    Testimony Before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary on S.522 concerning Proposed Amendments to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 to Protect the Rights of Unborn Children, April 2, 1985.
    Testimony Before the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate concerning S.2568 -- "The Civil Rights Act of 1984", June 5, 1984, (prepared statement and remarks).
    Testimony Before the Committee on the Separation of Powers, United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary on "The Law of Grandparents' Rights and Obligations: Custody, Guardianship, Adoption and Support", November 15, 1983.
    Testimony Before the Subcommittee on Civil and Constitutional Rights of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States House of Representatives, on H. Con. Res. 200, on the Constitutionality of Legislation to Establish a Commission on Civil Rights in the Legislative Branch, November 10, 1983.
    Testimony Before the Committee on the Separation of Powers, United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary on "Federal Judicial Intervention in Intra-family disputes: Emerging Trends in the Constitutionalization Family Law Issues", June 10, 1983, (prepared Statement and remarks).
    Testimony Before the Committee on the Separation of Powers, United States Senate Committee on the Judiciary on S. 158 concerning the First Amendment and Legislative Attempts to Protect Prenatal Human Life, June 12, 1981, (prepared statement and remarks).
    Testimony Before the Subcommittee on the Constitution, Senate Committee on the Judiciary on S. 2300 (Civil Rights Commission Authorization Act of 1978) at 252-371 (includes exhibits).


    Security in the Aftermath of ISIS”, Andrew Doran, Robert Nicholson, Stephen Hollingshead & Robert Destro, The American Interest, March 2, 2017.
    The Need to Create a National Security Council Task Force (NSCTF) to Identify and Punish the Actors, Aiders, and Abettors of the ISIS Genocide”, A White Paper, Andrew Doran, Joseph Toth, Robert Destro & Stephen Hollingshead (January 30, 2017).


    Interview with Jan Jekielek, Part 2: “Is the West Starting to Adopt China’s Orwellian Social Credit System and Internet Firewall?” Epoch Times, American Thought Leaders, December 11, 2021 (video)
    Interview Interview with Jan Jekielek, Part 1: “Chinas Communist Leaders are ‘Traffickers’ Selling Human Organs – on the ‘Genocides of Uyghurs, and Falun Gong,” Epoch Times, American Thought Leaders, December 9, 2021 (video)
    Statement on Discrimination in Medical Care Against Persons with Disabilities, Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights on Medical Care Discrimination Against Children with Disabilities, September, 1989.

    Statement of Commissioners Robert A. Destro, Esther Gonzalez-Arroyo Buckley, William B. Allen and Vice-Chairman Murray Friedman, Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Towards an Understanding of Johnson v. Santa Clara Transportation Agency, October, 1987 (Clearinghouse Publication No. 94).
    Concurring Statement, Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Recent Activities Against Citizens and Residents of Asian Descent, May, 1986 (Clearinghouse Publication No. 88).
    Concurring Statement, Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, The Economic Status of American of Southern and Eastern European Descent, October, 1986 (Clearinghouse Publication No. 89).
    “Statement of Commissioner John H. Bunzel, joined by Vice Chairman Murray Friedman and Commissioners Esther G. Buckley and Robert Destro” from The Economic Progress of Black Men in America, p.120, Clearinghouse Publication 91 (October 1986).
    Concurring Statement on "Comparable Worth", Report of the United States Commission on Civil Rights, Comparable Worth: An Analysis and Recommendation, June, 1985.
    Concurring Statement, "Statement on Grove City [College v. Bell]", United Statement States Commission on Civil Rights, March 26, 1985.
    Concurring Statement on Memphis Fire Fighters v. Stotts, United States Commission on Civil Rights, "Toward an Understanding of Stotts" July 17, 1984, (Clearinghouse Publication No. 85, January, 1985).


    Iraq War Regrets?, Aug. 16 2014 (Symposium)

    Is Kurdistan an Iraqi success story?, Washington Post, Op-Ed, Mar. 21, 
    2013 (with A. Larry Ross).
    “The Importance of “Everyday” Pro-Life Activism”, Columbia Magazine 
    (January 2012). (as submitted, publication can be obtained if necessary)

    “School Choice Offers Needy Students Better Education” USA Today, 
    February 18, 2002 (with Marshall Breger).
    “Where does Spending Public Money for Private Schools Lead?” U.S.A. Today, February 19, 2002, Tuesday (with Marshal J. Breger)
    “Is Parochial School Choice Unconstitutional?” Wall Street Journal, Feb 27, 
    1996 (with Marshall J. Breger)
    Four-part series: National Catholic Register, v. 71 n. 51-53 v. 72 n. 1

    Religion Tips Scales in Supreme Court, December 17, 1995.

    Sometimes It’s OK to Talk Faith, High Court Says, December 24, 1995.
    “Freedom of Religion” It’s All in the Eye of the Beholder, December 31, 1995.
    Religion & Race Vie for Supreme Court’s Favor, January 7, 1996.

    Should the RICO Statute be Applied to Abortion?: 1st Amendment 
    Defenders are Strangely Silent, Op. Ed, Philadelphia Inquirer; Apr 2, 1994,

    The U.S. Civil Rights Commission’s Stake in the AIDS Battle, New York 
    Times, May 18, 1988, (Letter to the editor signed by Chairman Clarence M. Pendleton, Jr., Vice-Chairman Murray Friedman, and Commissioners William B. Allen, Esther Gonzales Arroyo Buckley, and Robert A. Destro)
    "The Worldly Court", Columbia Magazine, July, 1979 at 13.

    Voice of the People: Courts and Abortion, Chicago Tribune, Jan 23, 1979,