Clinical Legal Education in the United States of America Time Line

  •  1776 Apprenticeships and self-directed reading
  •  1779 William and Mary College - first law faculty, 1779-1861; 1920-
  •  1782 Founding of the Litchfield Law School, Litchfield, Connecticut - first law school
  •  1790 University of Pennsylvania (College of Philadelphia) 1790-92; 1817-18; 1850-
  •  1794 Columbia University, 1794-98; 1824-26; 1858-|
  •  1799 Transylvania University (Kentucky University), Lexington, KY 1799-1861; 1865-79; 1892-95; 1905-12
  •  1817 Harvard Law School founded
  •  1824 Yale Law School founded
  •  1860 20 law schools in existence
  •  1870 Christopher Columbus Langell introduces case-study method of instruction at Harvard
  •  1878 August- ABA Organized in Saratoga, NY; creates a standing Committee on Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar
  •  1893 University of Pennsylvania - establishment of - Legal Aid Dispensary- by a student club
    • August- ABA Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar created
  •  1900 Association of American Law Schools created to regulate law schools
  •  1904 University of Denver - legal aid work
  •  1912 Harvard Legal Aid Clinic?
  •  1913 Harvard - Harvard Legal Aid Bureau founded by students
    • University of Minnesota - requires obligatory service by all students in the local Legal Aid Society
  •  1914 George Washington University - legal aid society created by students
  •  1915 Yale - independent legal aid society created
  •  1916 Tennessee - independent legal aid society begun
    • Wisconsin - required 6 months of office work from candidates for law degree
  •  1917 William V. Rowe publishes Legal Clinics and Better Trained Lawyers - A Necessity, 11 Ill. L. Rev. 591 (1917)
  •   1919 Reginald Heber Smith publishes Justice and the Poor (Carnegie Foundation Bulletin Number Thirteen, 1919)
    • Northwestern University - requires obligatory service by all students in the local Legal Aid Society or the Committee on Defense of Poor Persons Accused of Crime
  •  1920 Hastings College of the Law - requires obligatory service by all students in the local Legal Aid Societ
  •  1921 Elihu Root- s ABA Committee on Legal Education Report led to Standards for Legal Education
    • Reginald Heber Smith publishes Justice and the Poor, 2nd ed. (Carnegie Foundation Bulletin Number Thirteen, 1921)
    • Alfred Z. Reed publishes Training for the Public Profession of the Law (Carnegie Foundation Bulletin Number Fourteen, 1921) (Boston: D.B. Updike The Merrymount Press) 
  •  1922 February- ABA Special Conference on Legal Education, Washington, D.C. endorsed the - Root Report- Standards;
  •  1923 USC - first awards credit for work at the Legal Aid Foundation, which it helped establish
    • ABA approves first 39 law schools
  •  1924 Reginald Heber Smith publishes Justice and the Poor 3rd ed. (Carnegie Foundation Bulletin Number Thirteen, 1924)
  •  1925 University of Cincinnati & Northwestern University - establish legal aid programs
  •  1928 University of Southern Californai - establishes experimental, six-week clinical program; see John S. Bradway, The Beginning of the Legal Clinic of the University of Southern California, 2 S. Cal. L. Rev. 252 (1929).
  •  1930 John S. Bradway publishes The Nature of a Legal Aid Clinic, 3 S. Cal. L. Rev. 173 (1930)
  •  1931 Duke - Legal Aid Clinic established as first in-house clinical program; see John S. Bradway, Legal Aid Clinics in Less Thickly Populated Communities, 30 Mich. L. Rev. 905 (1932)
  •  1932 John S. Bradway, Legal Aid Clinics in Less Thickly Populated Communities, 30 Mich. L. Rev. 905 (1932)
  •  1933 John S. Bradway publishes Some Distinctive Features of a Legal Aid Clinical Course, 1 U. Chi. L. Rev. 469 (1933)
    • Jerome Frank publishes Why Not a Clinical Lawyer School, 81 U. Pa. L. Rev 907 (1933)
  •   1947 University of Tennessee - second law school to establish in-house clinical program; now the longest continually operating law school clinic
  •  1950s About 25 law schools offered programs based on a legal aid clinic model
  •  1957 States begin promulgating student practice rules; prior to 1957, only one state had adopted a student practice program
  •  1958 William Pincus, Ford Foundation program officer and Emery A. Brownell, Executive Director Of NLADA hold conversations to discuss idea of law school clinics
  •  1959 The National Council on Legal Clinics (NCLC) created with Ford Foundation grant to National Legal Aid Association. During the six years of its existence NCLC made grants totaling some $500,000 to nineteen law schools [Brickman @ 57]
  •  1964 The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (War on Poverty act), enacted August 20, 1964
  •  1965 Asheville Conference of Law School Deans on Education for Professional Responsibility, September 10-12, Asheville, N.C. , called by the National Council on Legal Clinics, a project of the National Legal Aid and Defender Association, in cooperation with the ABA and the AALS, supported by a Ford Foundation grant. Theodore Voorhees; Staff: Junius L. Allison, Executive Director, National Legal Aid and Defender Association; Howard R. Sacks, Exec.
    • OEO funding of the Legal Services program was $600,000 in 1965
  •  1965 Functions and activities of NCLC assumed by Council on Education in Professional Responsibility.
    • COEPR was established by AALS with a grant from the Ford Foundation. During the course of its existence (1965-1968) COEPR made grants to 21 law schools totaling approximately $290,000. Half of these grants were for summer internships
    • OEO Act amended to expressly authorize programs providing legal advice and legal representation to persons unable to afford private attorneys. This amendment also specifically authorized funds for the program.
  •  1968 Council on Legal Education for Professional Responsibility (CLEPR) created in spring 1968; William Pincus left the Ford Foundation to become the President and full-time, executive director of CLEPR. The Ford Foundation provided funding for an initial five-year period and a promise of support for a second five-year period.
    • Political Interference -- Mississippi 1968 Criminal? Administrative (dismissal)
      "In this early attack, two faculty members were actually dismissed by the Law School, after pressure from the Governor, if my memory serves. Committee A of the American Association of University Professors investigated and placed the University of Mississippi on the list of institutions at which academic freedom could not be guaranteed. The law professors filed suit in federal court and I believe won financial damages. Michael Trister v. Univ. of Miss.- [Bonine, e-mail 3/31/98] This led to AAUP censure of the University of Mississippi, a report of which can be found in the 1970 issues of Academe. There also was litigation and a 5th Circuit case. [Bonine e-mail 11/24/99]
  •  1969 January- CLEPR announces first 9 grants to Duke University, the Center for Law and Social Policy in Washington, D.C., the Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area, Harvard University, Northwestern University, Rutgers University, The University of South Carolina, the University of Utah and the University of Wisconsin. [CLEPR Newsletter, Vol. 1, no. 1, Jan. 1969 at 1]
    • March- CLEPR announces three grants to Arizona State; Hastings; and UC Berkeley
    • April- CLEPR announces nine new grants to Valparaiso, Connecticut (2), Maine, Minnesota, Mississippi, NYU, Oklahoma Bar Association (internships at State- s three law schools, Oklahoma, Tulsa and Oklahoma City; Yale
    • October 6,7 - First CLEPR Workshop on clinical legal education, at CLEPR headquarters.
    • October 31, November 1 - Law Students in Court conference at University of Chicago funded by a CLEPR grant
    • November 10,11 - Second CLEPR workshop on clinical legal education
    • D.C. Law Students in Court Program, Inc. created by Consortium of Universities of the Washington Metropolitan Area
  • — 1970 Credit-bearing clinical programs grew from 25 to 80 in CLEPR- s first two years
    • January - CLEPR announces 13 new grants to UCLA (??USC, see p.8), Case Western, Columbia, Howard, Marquette, Miami, New York Law School, NYU, Syracuse, Toledo, Wayne State, Yale and Villanova.
    • January - CLEPR announces 2 additional grants to Connecticut and Northeastern
    • March - 16 CLEPR grants awarded to Boston University; SUNY Buffalo; Catholic University, Cincinnati, Dickinson, Harvard, New Mexico, Northwestern, Oregon, Puerto Rico, St. Louis, South Carolina, Texas Southern, Washburn, and Wyoming.
    • March 23 & 24 - Third CLEPR workshop on clinical legal education
    • May 4 & 5 - Fourth CLEPR workshop on clinical legal education
    • June - 11 CLEPR Model Law Student-Prosecutor grants announced: Boston, Emory, Florida, Georgetown, Georgia, Louisville, South Carolina, Southern California, Southern Methodist, Stanford, and Texas Tech.
    • October 16 & 17 - CLEPR clinical legal education workshop
    • November 6 & 7 - CLEPR clinical legal education workshop
  • — 1971 CLEPR announces 28 new grants to American, Boston College, California-Los Angeles, Capital, Colorado, Denver, Detroit, Drake, Florida, Georgetown, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana State, Loyola-New Orleans, Michigan, Montana, Pennsylvania, Rutgers-Newark, St. Louis, Santa Clara, Southern California, Tennessee, Toledo, Vanderbilt, West Virginia, Willamette, York
    • Political Interference -- Connecticut 1971 Constitutional Ethics
      - Governor Tom Meskill objected to a University of Connecticut law clinic's representation of a protestor who displayed the American flag on the seat of his pants. Among other things, Joe Harbaugh managed to get the Ethics Committee of the American Bar Association to issue an opinion stating that it would be inappropriate for Deans or faculty committees to make case-selection decisions because each clinical teacher must follow ethical obligations of independent judgment in selection cases and deciding what steps to take in them. The opinion stressed the duty of lawyers to represent clients even in the face of adverse political pressures.- [Bonine, e-mail, 3/31/98]
    • See ABA Informal Ethics Opinion 242(?) [Bonine, e-mail, 11/24/99]
    • Political Interference - Iowa 1970s Criminal Political
      - I have only heard second-hand that a clinic at the University of Iowa successfully got a prisoner's death row conviction overturned in court, resulting in massive political pressures against the law school.
    • Legal Services Training Program (OEO) initiated. The Legal Services Training Program (LSTP) of the Columbus School of Law of the Catholic University of America and its sub-contractror, Abt Associates Inc., contracted with the Office of Economic Opportunity- s Office of Legal Services to deliver a minimum of 20,000 training hours to 500 Legal Services Program lawyers in a 14-month period ending September 30, 1972.
  •  1972 April - 15 new CLEPR grants (12 for clinical programs; 3 for training of clinical teachers): Program support given to Boston College; Cleveland State; Hofstra; Lewis & Clark; Minnesota; North Dakota; San Francisco; Seton Hall; Washburn; Wayne State; Yale.
    • July - 7 new CLEPR grants announced, including one to the Law Development Centre in Kampala, Uganda. By close of the year, CLEPR had made 116 grants totaling $4M to support experiments in clinical legal education at more than 90 of the ABA-approved law schools
    • Economic Opportunity Amendments of 1972 (September 19, 1972), Pub. L. No. 92-424, Director obligated to spend no less than $71.5 million for Legal Services in each of the fiscal years ending June 30, 1973 and June 30, 1974.
    • Quality Furniture vs. Allen case file and videotape created by Legal Services Training Program
  •  1973 In past five years CLEPR made more than - 100 grants to law schools to encourage them to provide lawyer-client experience for their students under law school supervision for credit. Five-sixths of the 151 law schools approved by the ABA have invested substantial resources of their own to start clinical programs, to continue those programs started with CLEPR grants, or to expand clinical programs in various ways. . . . And 42 of the 51 American jurisdictions have promulgated student practice rules which govern what happens when a student - practices Law- during his clinical legal education.- 
    • June 6-9-National Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Buck Hills Falls, Pennsylvania, sponsored by CLEPR , working papers published under the title, Clinical Education for the Law Student: Legal Education in a Service Setting (CLEPR 1973)
    • AALS Section on Clinical Legal Education created; Morton P. Cohen, then at Wayne State, was the first chairperson of the section
    • ABA adopts Standards for the Approval of Law Schools
  •  1974 August - CLEPR announces 39 new grants, 27 in support of clinical education at individual law schools: Capital; Cleveland State; Florida State; Georgetown; Loyola (LA); Loyola (NO); University of Missouri-KC; New Mexico; SUNY Buffalo; NYU; North Dakota; Ohio State; Oregon; Pennsylvania; San Diego; San Francisco; Seton Hall; USC; Temple; Tennessee; TSU; Vanderbilt; Washburn; Washington University (St. Louis); Wisconsin; Yale; York (Toronto).
    • Legal Services Corporation established by Congress, July 25. Public Law 93-355; 93 Congress H.R. 7824; H. Rept. 93-247; S. Conf. Rept. 98-845
  •  1975 May- CLEPR announces 15 new grants, including program grants to Case Western; Chicago-Kent; Columbia; Duke; Maryland; Michigan; San Diego; Southwestern; TSU; Temple; Washburn; New Mexico; San Diego; USC ; and Washburn
    • Political Interference - Arkansas, see Atkinson v. Board of Trustees of the University of Arkansas, 559 S.w. 2d 473 (1977)
  •  1976 November 18-21- CLEPR Conference on the Education and Licensing of Lawyers, Key Biscayne, Florida
    • December - CLEPR grants to Northwestern & Tennessee
    • - Establishment of world- s first Environmental Law Clinic, University of Oregon, by Professors Charles Wilkinson and Frank Barry. It operated mostly as an external placement clinic until 1978, when Professor John Bonine took it over and turned it into an active, in-house law clinic.- 
    • Political Interference - Oregon 1976, see also 1978 Environmental Ethics; Administrative;
      1981, 1983, Financial; Legal;
      1987, 1992 Financial, Ethics, Legis.
    • - It's a very long story, but part of the story is that attacks on the Clinic in the early 1980s -- resulting in depositions taken from University Vice President, Acting Dean, Clinic Director, and students -- were nothing compared to the reaction to the clinic's the filing in 1987 of the first law suit to protect the northern spotted owl by limiting logging in Northwest forests. This resulted in pressure through the University's fund-raising body, creation by the president of a "clinic study committee" (but with national representation that fully vindicated the Environmental Law Clinic), ethical charges against the clinic directors (dismissed as baseless by the State Bar), failure of the State Board of Higher Education to reappoint the President (which he attributed to his refusal to shut down the clinic), a bill in the state legislature to shut down the entire Law School if it would not discontinue the clinic, and ultimate voluntary separation of the litigation function of the clinic from the Law School by creation of an off-campus 501(c)(3) law firm.- 

      [Article about the Clinic Study Committee by Elizabeth ______ (Rutgers?) Dean Hill Rivkin (Tenn.) was on the committee]
  •  1977 May - July- CLEPR awards grants to Hofstra; New Mexico; NYU; Rutgers; Yale; McGeorge; Antioch; and Pennsylvania
    • October - 20 - 22 - AALS sponsored teacher training conference for recently-hired clinicians, partially funded with a grant from CLEPR ($16,250) at Cleveland State University, Cleveland, OH
  •  1978 44 states have adopted student practice rules
    • Federal Funding for clinical programs (Title IX of Higher Education Act of 1965) begins; Congress approves $1M for FY 1978.
    • March 3-4 - AALS sponsored conference on Title IX of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (- Law School Clinical Experience Programs- ) at Vanderbilt
    • AALS Clinical Teaching Clinic, July 30 - August 5, Georgetown University Law Center
    • CLEPR grants to Chicago-Kent; University of Chicago; American University; Vanderbilt; UCLA; Boston U.; Georgia; South Carolina; SMU; Loyola (LA)
    • Publication of Gary Bellow & Bea Moulton, The Lawyering Process: Materials for Clinical Instruction in Advocacy (West Pub. Co. 1978)
    • First Environmental Law Clinic?? at University of Colorado [e-mail, 10/29/99, fr. Bob Golten][Bonine, 11/24/99, says Oregon was first (1976)][was Colo. first in-house? - jpo]
  •  1979 Council on Legal Education for Professional Responsibility (CLEPR), Survey and Directory of Clinical Legal Education 1978-1979 (1979) - 80% (- true figure is probably closer to 90%- ) of the ABA approved law schools in the country which engage in some form of clinical training.
    • June 10 - 16- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Snowmass-at-Aspen, CO
    • CLEPR ceases operations>
  •  1980 June 15 - 21- AALS Conference on Clinical Teaching, Big Sky, Montana
    • ______First Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Chicago, IL (University of Chicago)
    • November 14 - Clinical Education Workshop, McGeorge School of Law
    • AALS-ABA Committee on Guidelines for Clinical Legal Education, Clinical Legal Education published
    • First Immigration Law Clinics?? at Golden Gate (Bill Ong Hing) and Columbia (Harriet Rabb) [e-mail, 10/26/99 fr. Bill Ong Hing]
    • [1st Children- s Law Clinic at Texas?? - Bonine, e-mail, 11/24/99]
  •  1981 June 20 - 25- AALS Conference on Clinical Teaching, Samoset, ME
    • October 16 - 18 - California Clinical Consortium Workshop
    • Political Interference - Tennessee 1981-83 Prison Legal, University; Colorado (see Schnieder @ n. 32
    • - Tennessee Attorney General and University's Board of Trustees went after the UT Legal Clinic for handling a case and requesting fees from the state. Can no longer handle "significant litigation" against the state where fees are available.- (Schneider @ nn. 36-37)
    • Political Interference - Idaho 1980s, see also 1997 Environmental Legislative, other;
      1989 Criminal Lawyer's Criticism (Schneider, nn. 33-34)
    • Legislative attack on clinic's participation in an environmental case, stimulated by Mountain States Legal Foundation; nearly succeeded in pulling funding. Also criticisms over clinic involvement in a death penalty case (1989) threatened state funding, and in 1997 criticisms were lodged by opposing counsel over an environmental case.
    • Political interference - Oregon (Schneider, nn. 38-39); Iowa (Schneider, n. 30)
  •  1982 January 7- AALS Mini-Workshop on Clinical Teaching, AALS Annual Meeting
    • June 19 - 26- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education,University of Minnesota
  •  1983 April 21 - 23- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education, New Orleans, LA
    • November 4 - 6 - Pacific Regional Conference on Clinical and Lawyering Skills Education, Berkeley, CA
    • Robert Stevens, Law Schools: Legal Education in America from the 1850s to the 1980s published
  •  1984 January 5- AALS Mini-Workshop on Clinical Teaching, AALS Annual Meeting
    • May 19 - 25- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Duke University
  •  1985 April 10 - 11 - AALS Workshop on Applications of Technology for the Teaching of Litigation, Baltimore, MD
    • April 11 - 13 - AALS Workshop on Litigation Theory and Practice, Baltimore, MD
    • Political Interference -- Colorado 1985? Environmental Fund-raising, University
      - The Mountain States Legal Foundation (former home of James Watt) attacked the Environmental Law Clinic at the University of Colorado just as they had done a couple of years earlier in Oregon. Pressure was exerted on the University through Fund-raising arms and the state Board of Regents.-
  •  1986 May 17 - 22- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, University of Colorado
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Minneapolis, MN (University of Minnesota)
  •  1987 March 12 - 14- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education, San Antonio, TX
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Chicago, IL (DePaul Law School)
  •  1988 May 21 - 27- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, University of Indiana, Bloomington
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, De Moines, IA (Drake Law School)
  •  1989 May 4 - 6- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education, Washington, D.C.
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Tokeka, KS (Washburn Law School)
    • Political Interference - Rutgers 1989 ?? Legislative, Legal
      - Conflict-of-interest allegations against the law clinics at Rutgers. NJ Legislature passed a statute that prohibited state employees from representing private citizens or groups before state agencies. Case went to the NJ Supreme Court, which held (4-3) that Rutgers clinicians were exempt from this law. In re: Determination of Executive Commission on Ethical Standards re: Appearance of Rutgers Attorneys, 561 A.2d 542 (1989).- 
  •  1990sPolitical Interference - Northwestern 1990s ?? Alumni
    • Several years ago when a clinic represented the father of "Baby Richard" the school and clinic took some heat from alumni and others.- 
    • Political Interference -- San Diego 1990s Environmental University
      - Clinic work against proposed shopping mall was criticized by a University Trustee.- 
    • Political Interference - Michigan 1990s? Prison, Envir. Legislator, Lawyers
      - A class action against the Michigan Department of Corrections got some press. State senator sent e-mail to the president of the University, questioning appropriateness of the Law School clinic suing the state and seeking attorneys' fees; warned that such suits could interfere with the University's funding in the legislature. Unsuccessful attack. Cases against Dow Chemical and a utility company resulted in pressures and criticism.- 
  •  1990 June 2 - 7- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, University of Michigan
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Madison, WI (Wisconsin Law School)
  •  1991 May 2 - 4- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education, Washington, DC
    • May - Clinical Legal Education Association founded
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Chicago, IL (University of Chicago
  •  1992 MacCrate Report published by ABA. see Section of Legal Education and Admissions to the Bar, American Bar Association, Legal and Professional Development- An Educational Continuum (Report of the Task Force on Law Schools and the Profession: Narrowing the Gap, 1992)[MacCrate Report]
    • Report of the Committee on the Future of the In-House Clinic published, 42 J. Legal Educ. 508
    • May 9 - 13- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Albuquerque, NM
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Iowa City, IA (University of Iowa)
  •  1993 ABA Standard 301 (Aug. 1993) - law schools required to maintain an educational program - designed to prepare their graduates to participate effectively in the legal profession.- 
    • May 5 - 6- First AALS Clinical Directors Workshop, McLean, VA
    • May 6 - 8- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education, McLean, VA
    • May 6 - 8- Externship Conference sponsored by Clinical Legal Education Association, McLean, VA
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Chicago, IL (Chicago-Kent Law School)
    • Political Interference - Arizona 1993? Prison, Envir. Legislative, Fees
      Death Penalty
      - Legislative efforts were made to shut down clinics due to cases on prison conditions, ownership of navigable river beds, and death penalty appeals, including recovery of attorney fees.- 
  •  1994 June 4 - 8- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Newport Beach, CA
    • Clinical Law Review publishes first issue in spring 1994
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Lawrence, KS (University of Kansas)
  •  1995 May 3 - 6- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education, St. Louis, MO
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, St. Paul, MN (William Mitchell College of Law)
  •  1996 ABA Standard 302; 405(c) and Interpretation 405-8 (August 1996)
    • May 18 - 22- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Miami, FL
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Cleveland, OH (Case Western Reserve Law School)
  •  1997 Title IX (Clinical Experience Program) funding ends, see 143 Cong. Rec. *S8632, S8639 (Sept., 2, 1997) See also, Department of Education Biennial Evaluation Report for FY95-96, Law School Clinical Experience Program (CFDA No. 84.097)
    • May 2 - 7- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education and Law Clinic Directors workshop, Dallas, TX
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Ann Arbor, MI (University of Michigan)
    • Political Interference - Tulane 1997- ?? Environmental Financial, Stud. Practice
      - Louisiana's Governor called on Tulane alumni and supporters not to contribute to the university because of the clinic's representation of a neighborhood association that was opposing the proposed plans for a chemical plant (Shintech). Governor Foster also questioned Tulane's receiving the sales tax deferment given to all non-profit educational institutions. Complaints were also filed by three Louisiana business organizations with the Louisiana Supreme Court asking the court to make significant changes in its rule permitting practice under supervision by third-year clinical students. Four years earlier, a complaint of ethical violations by the Environmental Law Clinic was made to the Court.- 
  •  1998 March 5 - 8 - Legal Externships: Learning from Practice, Columbus School of Law, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC
    • May 5 - 9- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Portland, OR
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Chicago, IL (De Paul Law School)
    • Political Interference - Texas Tech 1998 Environmental Legal
      - Under a Texas statute addressing conflicts-of-interest by state employees, the state attorney general is trying to prevent Prof. Skillern (as a state employee) from spending state time or money to assist students in challenging a permit issued by the state environmental agency. Lawsuit may have been filed challenging this narrow interpretation of the state conflict-of-interest law.- 
  •  1999 May 4 - 8- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education and Clinical Directors Meeting, Squaw Valley, CA
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Madison, WI (University of Wisconsin)
  •  2000 May 6 - 10- AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Albuquerque, NM
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, St. Louis, MO (Washington University)
  •  2001 May 9 - 12- AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education, Montreal, Canada
    • May 9 - 10- AALS Director- s Workshop, Montreal, Canada
    • May 9 - 10- CLEA New Teacher- s Workshop, Montreal, Canada
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Lansing, MI (Thomas M. Cooley Law School)
  •  2002 May 18 - 22- AALS Conference on Legal Education, Pittsburgh PA
    • October 4 - 6- Rocky Mountain Regional Clinical Conference, __________
  •  2003 March 7 - 8 - Externships2: Learning From Practice, Columbus School of Law, The Catholic University of America, Washington, DC
    • ______Mini-Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, St. Louis, MO (Washington University)
    • May 14 - 17 - AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education and Law Clinic DirectorsWorkshop (May 13 - 14), Vancouver, BC, Canada
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, St. Paul, MN (William Mitchell College of Law)
  •  2004 May 1 - 4 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, San Diego, CA
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Champaign, IL (University of Illinois)
    • October 22 - 24 - Rocky Mountain Regional Clinical Conference, Denver, CO (University of Denver)
  •  2005 April 30 - May 3 - AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education and Law Clinic Directors Workshop (April 30 - May 1), Chicago, IL
    • ______Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, Topeka, KS (Washburn University)
  •  2006 March 24 - 25 - Externships3: Learning from Practice, Los Angeles, CA
    • October 13- 15 - Midwest Clinical Legal Education Conference, South Bend, IN (University of Notre Dame)
  • — 2007
    • May 2 - 6 - AALS Workshop on Clinical Legal Education & Law Clinic Directors Workshop, New Orleans, LA
  •  2008
    • February 15 - 16 - Externships4: A Bridge to Practice, Seattle, Washington
    • May 3 - 7 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Tucson, AZ
  •  2009 May 5 - 9 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Cleveland, OH
  •  2010 March 4 - 6 - Externships5: Externships in Changing Times, Miami, FL
    • May 4 - 8 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Baltimore, MD
  •  2011June 12 - 17 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Seattle, WA
  •  2012 March 1 - 4 - Externships6: Preparing Lawyers: The Role of Field Placement, Boston, MA (Harvard Law School & Northeastern Univ. School of Law)
    • April 30 - May 3 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Los Angeles, CA
  •  2013 April 28 - May 1 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, San Juan, PR
    • April 27 - AALS Law Clinic Directors Workshop, San Juan, PR
  •  2014
    • February 27 - March 2 - Externships7: Scaling New Heights: Field Placements & the Reform of Legal Education, Denver, CO (Univ. of Denver, Sturm College of Law)
    • April 27 - 30 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Chicago, IL
    • April 27 - AALS Workshop for New Clinical Law Faculty, Chicago, IL
  •  2015
    • May 4 - 7 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Rancho Mirage, CA
    • May 3 - 4 - AALS Law Clinic Directors Workshop, Rancho Mirage, CA
  •  2016 March 3 - 6 - Externships7: Building on Common Ground: Externships, Clinics & Practice-Based Education, Cleveland, OH (Cleveland-Marshall College of Law)
    • April 30 - May 3 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Baltimore, MD
  •  2017 May 5 - 9 - AALS Conference on Clinical Legal Education, Denver, CO



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