Below is a list of are course descriptions that may be taken and applied towards a student's LL.M. concentration in Comparative and International Law. Students will work with a faculty adviser to select a group of courses, which best suits the path a student is interested in following.

Administrative Law (3 hrs.)
This course involves the study of the administrative process, including formal and informal processes within various administrative agencies; as well as judicial, legislative, and executive control of administrative activity. The investigative, interpretative, rulemaking, adjudicatory, and enforcement operations of administrative agencies will be covered. Prof. Breger, Prof. Gregg, Prof. Mintz.

Advanced Legal Research and Writing (3 hrs.) — WC
This course will develop students’ writing and research skills by guiding them through the process of researching for and writing a case note on a pending Supreme Court case. The first component of the course will be devoted to the development of advanced legal research skills including planning research strategies, field research, research in public records, constitutional law research, statutes, legislative histories, tracking legislation, treaties, administrative and executive publications, agency rules, regulations and adjudications, government documents, case finding, case verification, secondary sources, looseleaf services, LEXIS, WESTLAW, Internet resources, nonlegal research, and specialized legal research. The remainder of the course will be devoted to the refinement of writing skills, focusing particularly on organization, use of authority, and development of an effective writing style. Successful completion of this course fulfills one half of the upper-level writing requirement. Students who are taking or have already taken Advanced Legal Research or a course on legal literature taught by the School of Library and Information Science may not take this course. Ms. Baskir, Prof. Harmon, Prof. Williams.

Alternative Dispute Resolution Techniques (2 hrs.) — req. QP or PP
The seminar is a limited-enrollment (20 students) course that looks at mechanisms for resolving disputes other than the mechanism of litigation. It concentrates on negotiation, arbitration, mediation-conciliation, and the so-called “rent-a-judge” and the “mini-trial” proposals. The seminar will be mainly an in-depth discussion and analysis of the individual devices, and will evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives in relation to litigation. A number of guest lecturers will attend and participate. Students will participate in simulations and be critiqued on their individual performance. Class participation by all members of the seminar is required and the final grade will be based on the research paper or portfolio papers written by each participant. Each student will be required to give a short, oral presentation on his or her paper topic toward the end of the semester. This course requires a qualifying course paper or portfolio papers that fulfill one half of the upper-level writing requirement. Refer to Academic Rule XIII — Writing Requirement and Directed Research. Prof. Woods.

Becoming an International Lawyer (1 or 2 hrs.)
This externship seminar is similar to Becoming a Lawyer, except that students' field placements are in international law and class discussion focuses on issues that relate to the practice of international law. Students in the Comparative and International Law Institute should take this course to fulfill one of the externship requirements for the certificate. Students normally receive a total of one credit for this course. However, students may receive one additional credit (two total credits) for conducting legal research and advocacy on a pre-selected international law related topic. This project will enable students to draft a legal writing sample for their job search and learn pertinent employment skills related to working in an international legal capacity. Students should enroll in “Legal Externship” while taking this course to receive credits for their fieldwork. Pass/fail option. Ms. Feasley.

Comparative and International Trade (Day, 3 hrs.; Eve., 2 hrs.)
This course examines the major issues of international trade and its regulation at the national and international level. The focus is on the U.S. trade laws, including the tariff system and customs laws, the safeguard provisions, antidumping and countervailing duty remedies, and retaliatory measures. Attendant issues such as the distribution of powers to regulate international trade, the delegation doctrine, and judicial review of regulating agencies are also examined. The international regulatory framework — principally, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the World Trade Organization — are examined in some detail, with a focus on the fundamental rule of nondiscrimination, the resolution of disputes through the dispute settlement system, and the relationship between international agreements and the United States law. Finally, the course also examines specialized topics including free trade areas and customs unions, treatment of nonmarket/transitional economies, developing countries, and international trade in service. Prof. Ludwikowski.

Comparative European Legal History: Roman Law and the Ius commune (3 hrs.)
This course surveys European legal history from Roman law to the Renaissance of Rome as part of the Ius commune in the 11th and 12th centuries. The purpose of the course is to introduce two of the great legal traditions of the Western European tradition: Roman law and the Ius commune. The course begins with an examination of Justinian’s Corpus iuris civilis in the sixth century AD. It explores the main areas of Roman family law, torts, contracts, and property law. After establishing the broad outline of Roman legal concepts, the course will explore the revival of Roman law in Italy at the end of the 11th century, and its adoption by the law schools of Europe, and its integration into the Ius commune. This part of the course describes how the jurists of the 12th to the eighteenth centuries used principles, norms, categories, and concepts of Roman law and applied them to every European legal system. A fuller description of this course, as well as the syllabus and reading materials can be found online at: Prof. Pennington.

Comparative Law (2 hrs.) — opt. QP
The purpose of this course is to provide the student with knowledge about the basic legal systems in the world. Special emphasis will be given throughout the course to legal systems in Great Britain, France, Germany, and the countries of the former Soviet bloc. The course begins with discussion of legal education and the legal professions in these countries. The basic principles of British, French, and German constitutional law are studied to provide the political background necessary to compare these legal systems. The course also examines judicial structures and court organization, as well as key principles of criminal and civil procedures. Prof. Ludwikowski, Prof. Watson.

Conflict of Laws (3 hrs.)
The course introduces students to the problems arising when clients are confronted with private law matters having multistate or multinational elements. The course emphasizes the traditional concerns of conflicts of law, jurisdiction of courts, choice of law, and the recognition and enforcement of judgments. Prof. Destro, Prof. Perez.

Corporate Finance Seminar (2 hrs.)
The course examines the major financial and structural changes that an on-going corporation might experience. Topics that explored include valuation methods, leverage finance, debt instruments, share repurchase tactics, merger techniques, going-private transactions, hostile and friendly tender-offers, recapitalizations, acquisitions, and spin-offs. These subjects will be analyzed in terms of their corporate and securities law implications, as well as for related economic and policy concerns. Corporations required. A previous or contemporaneous course in securities is recommended. A good understanding of business can serve as a substitute. Limited enrollment. Prof. Lipton.

Directed Research (2 hrs.)
This course offers students the opportunity to conduct original, in-depth legal research and produce a quality, written analysis in an area of special interest under the close supervision of a faculty member. The course will fulfill one of the two upper-class writing requirements if the student achieves a final grade of at least a B-. A faculty member who agrees to serve as the student’s supervising instructor will provide guidance and feedback throughout the research and writing process. The student’s final grade will reflect the supervising instructor’s evaluation of the quality of the student’s legal research and legal analysis, as well as the quality of his/her legal writing. Although the page number requirement is left to the supervising instructor's discretion, it is unlikely that a paper of acceptable quality could be completed in fewer than 40 pages. To register, a student must submit a statement of topic, signed by the supervising instructor, that describes the proposed research topic and establishes the tentative research and writing schedule. The signed statement of topic must be submitted to the Office of the Academic Dean before the end of the add/drop period for the semester. (See Academic Rule XIII).

Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (1 hr.)
The World Bank estimates that more than 8% of the world's gross domestic product, or $4.9 trillion, consists of bribes paid to government officials and government contracts tainted by bribery. This figure exceeds the individual economies of every country on Earth except for the United States and China. To combat this staggering problem, the United States in 1977 became the first nation to criminalize the act of bribing foreign government officials. Since then, the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) has become one of the U.S. government's highest enforcement priorities, second only to fighting terrorism.

This course will expose students to the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and the growing number of international treaties and foreign laws designed to combat bribery worldwide. The course will provide an in-depth analysis of FCPA's anti-bribery provisions, relevant federal case law, U.S. government advisory opinions, and the hundreds of settlements used by the Department of Justice and the Securities and Exchange Commission that shed light on anti-corruption practices. The course will also examine the provisions of the FCPA which require U.S. public companies to devise and maintain robust compliance programs to detect and prevent bribery. The course will review FPCA corporate fines and penalties that routinely exceed $100 million, how they are calculated under the U.S. Sentencing Guidelines, the manner in which self-reporting serves to mitigate liability, and the growing focus on the prosecution of individuals for bribery crimes. The course will take a practical approach, emphasizing what the various provisions of the FCPA mean for firm and in-house counsel alike, and the challenge of balancing compliance risks with business needs. Mr. Steinman.

Foreign Relations and National Security Law (3 hrs.)
This is an advanced course in constitutional law, addressing primarily separation of powers questions in the context of national security law issues. Constitutional Law I and II are required courses. Constitutional Law II may be taken concurrently. The course examines a number of specific constitutional and statutory doctrines regulating the conduct of American foreign relations. Included among the issues are the status of international law in U.S. courts, the scope of the treaty power, the validity and effects of executive agreements, the validity of state foreign relations activities, the powers to declare and conduct war, the regulation of intelligence activities (both foreign and domestic), and the political question and other doctrines regulating judicial review in foreign relations and national security cases. Where relevant, we will focus on current events, such as military detention of alleged terrorists, human rights litigation against multinational corporations, the prosecution of piracy, and controversies over immigration enforcement. A traditional hypothetical exam will serve as the primary basis for the student's grade, but the professor reserves to the right in accordance with the academic rules to adjust grades for class participation and any written exercises. The professor will be open to considering supervising directed research project proposals in the semester following successful completion of the course. Prof. Perez

Human Trafficking Seminar (2 hrs.)
Trafficking in persons is a global human rights violation that constitutes a contemporary form of slavery. This course is designed to examine the various issues related to human trafficking, including forced labor, sex trafficking, bonded labor, debt bondage, involuntary servitude, forced child labor, child soldiers, child sex trafficking, organ trafficking, forced and early marriage, and domestic servitude. Other related practices, such as the sale of children for irregular inter-country adoption and the sale of wives through transnational marriages, will also be covered. The course is designed to expose students to a survey selection of contemporary issues related to the trafficking in persons and efforts to combat it on both the domestic and international levels. The course will analyze the laws of the United States as well as relevant international conventions and protocols. The American statutes reviewed consist of those addressing trafficking in human beings, including those related to alien smuggling, immigration, international aid, slavery, involuntary servitude, the transportation of a person in interstate or foreign commerce for the purpose of prostitution under the Mann Act, and the 2000 Trafficking Victims Protection Act, as amended in 2003, 2005, 2008, and 2013. The course will also cover the international trafficking prohibitions of the various international conventions including the Protocol to Prevent and Punish the Trafficking in Persons Especially Women and Children, the relevant portions of the UN Convention on Human Rights, and the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child, among many others. The course will emphasize the human rights based approach to trafficking in persons and the recognition of the trafficked person as a victim of a crime. The course will also inquire into the role of government corruption and organized crime in facilitating the crime of trafficking. Lastly, the course will examine practical obstacles and challenges to the implementation of U.S. laws. This will include national and international actors’ differing approaches to prevention and prosecution, enforcement challenges, and competing priorities. This course includes a qualifying course paper that fulfills one half of the upper-level writing requirement. Prof. Leary

Humanitarian Assistance and International Development Law (2 hrs.)
In this course, students will become familiar with sources of international and United States domestic law relevant to humanitarian and international development assistance outside the United States. Students will also gain an understanding of principles and objectives that motivate the United States, other donor (including emerging donor) governments, international organizations (inc. the United Nations System), and the non-profit, foundation, and for-profit private sector to provide humanitarian and international development assistance. This course will also investigate the legal and policy frameworks which manifest those principles and objectives and how foreign assistance is operationalized.

Lastly, students will develop an understanding of the changing role of the recipients of international development and humanitarian assistance -- from individuals to states to multinational actors -- in the development of international standards and norms for assistance. Mr Jin, Mr. Khardori, Mr. Young.

Immigration Law: Deportation and Asylum (2 hrs.)
This course explores substantive, procedural, strategic and ethical issues related to removal proceedings, including asylum claims, cancellation of removal, and other forms of relief. It also examines grounds of inadmissibility and deportability, family-based immigration, as well as the various agency-level actors involved in removal proceedings and asylum claims. This course is a pre-requisite or co-requisite for the Immigration Litigation Clinic and is complementary to the Immigration Law: Employment, Family and Naturalization course. Mr. Koelsch.

Immigration Law: Employment, Family and Naturalization (2 hrs.)
This course is designed to provide students with an understanding of U.S. immigration and naturalization law in the field of family, business and citizenship benefits. Topics include family based green cards, employment based immigrant visas, non-immigrant visas, non-immigrant and immigrant visa waivers and the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) policy. At the conclusion of the course, students will possess a working knowledge of key elements of immigration and naturalization law, and understand ways in which they can incorporate this area of law into their future work as lawyers. Students will also engage in activities which closely mirror an actual immigration law practice, while at the same time gaining an understanding of ethical and integrity issues which are unique to immigration. This course is complementary to the Immigration Law: Deportation and Asylum course. Mr. Mooers

Immigration Litigation Clinic (6 hrs., full year)
The Immigration Litigation Clinic (ILC) is a six-credit, year-long course that provides eligible students with intensive exposure to immigration litigation practice through a combination of actual trial practice and classroom work. Under the supervision of experienced immigration attorneys, ILC students represent noncitizens who have been placed in removal proceedings, assisting them in seeking relief from removal so they may remain in the United States, preserving family unity and keeping them safe from persecution and torture. ILC students work in teams of two, each of which is assigned a complex matter. They have full responsibility for every aspect of their cases, and the course culminates in the students’ representation of their clients before the Baltimore and Arlington Immigration Courts. Through this experience, students are able to refine writing and research skills, develop effective trial techniques and other lawyering skills, and learn what it is like to be a practicing attorney.

ILC students attend two classes per week, comprising of lecture, discussion, participatory exercises and simulations, and actual casework. While the seminar classes are held at the Columbus School of Law, students meet with their clients and work substantively on their cases at the Immigration Legal Services office of Catholic Charities of the Archdiocese of Washington. In addition to the class meetings, students are expected to meet regularly with their supervisors to discuss their casework.

The ILC accepts up to 10 second, third, and fourth year students who have already taken Immigration Law or who are enrolled in Immigration Law in the fall semester. Students earn six credits (three credits per semester) and must commit to approximately 20 hours of work per week. Students receive a mid-year evaluation at the end of the fall semester and a final grade at the end of the spring semester. In taking the ILC course, students may also satisfy the Portfolio Writing Requirement, Practical Skills, and Transition to Practice requirements. Ms. Collopy, Ms. Mendez.

International Business Transactions (3 hrs.) — req. QP
This course concentrates on private business transactions that cross national boundaries. After an examination of some basic international and comparative law principles, the course examines various types of international commercial agreements such as joint ventures, contracts for the sale of goods, agency and distribution agreements, and franchises. In addition, the course includes some practical exercises in negotiating and drafting international business contracts, and examines methods of dispute resolution such as international commercial arbitration. Guest lecturers may address some specialized topics during the semester. This course requires a qualifying course paper that fulfills one half of the upper-level writing requirement. Refer to Academic Rule XIII — Writing Requirement and Directed Research. The final grade is based on a contract-drafting exercise. Prof. Perez.

Introduction to American Law and Legal Methods (3 hrs.)
This course, which is designed exclusively for M.L.S. students, provides an overview of the United States legal system and teaches the process of legal analysis. Coverage will include the structure of the United States government; sources of law; judicial and court processes; legal reasoning; the role of the lawyer; and foundational legal issues related to first year courses, such as Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law, Contacts, Criminal Law, Torts and Property. Students will develop analytical and research skills through various oral and written exercises. Specifically, students will learn how to identify and extract rules from cases and how to apply those rules to other factual scenarios. Students will also be introduced to the techniques of statutory analysis and interpretation. Ms. Vuono.

International Criminal Law (1 hr.)
This course examines both substantive and procedural aspects of international criminal law. Substantive-law topics include genocide, crimes against peace, crimes against humanity and war crimes. Procedural topics include extradition, mutual legal assistance, and the jurisdiction and structure of the international criminal tribunals, including the International Criminal Court and the international criminal tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. This is an exam course. Prof. Watson.

International Intellectual Property Law (2 hrs.)
An overview of the international aspects of intellectual property law, focusing on the major areas of copyright, patent, and trademark law. The course covers the development and nature of international protection under domestic law, as well as under bilateral and multilateral agreements; the use of trade negotiations as a mechanism for the implementation and harmonization of rights; and enforcement problems, including issues of jurisdiction, territoriality, exhaustion of rights, and conflicts of law. Limited enrollment. Prerequisite: Introduction to Intellectual Property Law, Patent Law, Copyright Law, Trademark Law, or Trademarks and Unfair Competition. Mr. Chambers, Ms. Claggett, Prof. Fischer, Mr. Laskoski.

Introduction to American Law and Legal Methods (3 hrs.)
This course, which is designed exclusively for M.L.S. students, provides an overview of the United States legal system and teaches the process of legal analysis. Coverage will include the structure of the United States government; sources of law; judicial and court processes; legal reasoning; the role of the lawyer; and foundational legal issues related to first year courses, such as Civil Procedure, Constitutional Law, Contacts, Criminal Law, Torts and Property. Students will develop analytical and research skills through various oral and written exercises. Specifically, students will learn how to identify and extract rules from cases and how to apply those rules to other factual scenarios. Students will also be introduced to the techniques of statutory analysis and interpretation. Ms. Vuono.

Law Journal Editing (2 hrs. over two semesters; pass/fail)
This course is mandatory for third- and fourth-year law journal members who supervise student writing projects (as determined by each editor-in-chief); it is optional for other third- and fourth-year journal members. During the first five weeks of the semester, the course focuses on topic selection, publication decisions, substantive editing, style editing, word editing, and professional working relationships. The instructor provides editing exercises and workshops and leads discussions of classic law review articles and trends in legal scholarship. For the remainder of the semester, students supervise and edit at least two student writing projects or critique or edit at least two other manuscripts submitted to the law journal. During this time the instructor conducts editing tutorials, as the need arises, and is available for student conferences. If a student has not completed the required editing assignments by the end of the first semester, work may continue into the second semester, in which case course credit will not be awarded until the end of the second semester. The journal faculty adviser, in consultation with the editor-in-chief, must certify that each student has successfully completed the required assignments. The course may fulfill one of the two upper-class writing requirements, but a student may not count BOTH this course and Law Journal Writing toward completion of the upper-class writing requirement. Refer to Academic Rule XIII — Writing Requirement and Directed Research. Prof. Harmon.

Law Journal Writing (2 hrs. over two semesters; pass/fail)
This course is open only to students who are producing a writing project for one of the school’s law journals. These students must take this course if they choose to receive academic credit for their journal writing project or count it toward satisfaction of the upperclass writing requirement. Generally, students register for one credit for each of the two semesters; the credits are not awarded until the end of the second semester. During the first three weeks of the first semester, lawyering skills faculty conduct workshops that focus on writing skills such as organization, integrating research, transitions and headings, substantive footnoting, grammar and vocabulary appropriate to the journal audience, constructive use of editor and expert-reader feedback, and re-drafting. The instructor schedules writing tutorials for students throughout the year as need dictates. Students must complete a journal portfolio that includes all drafts of the writing project, an expert-reader’s comments, the supervising editor’s comments, the editor-in-chief’s comments, and a certification that the student attended all required workshops. The journal’s faculty adviser, in conjunction with the editor-in-chief, must certify the portfolio is complete and that the student’s Writing Project is of publishable quality. The course fulfills one of the two upper-class writing requirements, but the student may not count BOTH this course and the Law Journal Editing toward completion of the upper-class writing requirement. Refer to Academic Rule XIII — Writing Requirement and Directed Research. Prof. Harmon.

Law of the European Union (3 hrs.) — E or QP
The rationale of this course is to provide an overview of the political and legal framework of the European Union’s institutions, trade relations, and legal and business implications of the European process of integration. The focus will be on the process of the creation of the European Union, goals and purposes of the union, the structural framework and processes for the development of European Union’s law, constitutional issues, and the roles of the European Court of Justice, East-West trade, and United States trade within the European Union. If the instructor allows papers in lieu of examinations, this course may include a qualifying course paper that fulfills one half of the upper-level writing requirement. Refer to Academic Rule XIII — Writing Requirement and Directed Research. Prof. Ludwikowski.

Legal Drafting: General Drafting (3hrs.) — WC
This course offers students an introduction to legal drafting, with an emphasis on such essential skills as writing with clarity and precision, conforming with statutes and ordinances, using forms appropriately, achieving the goals of clients, identifying and eliminating ambiguity, editing and proofreading a written product, and simplifying complex thoughts and ideas. This course provides students with a thorough introduction to the principles of general drafting through the use of various techniques as written exercises, peer critique, and in-class workshops. These may be general office documents or documents in a particular doctrinal area. Through the course of the semester, students draft a minimum of three major legal documents in addition to rewrites and shorter written exercises. Successful completion of this course satisfies one of the upper-level legal writing requirements. Enrollment will be limited to 16 students per section. Mr. Danzig, Mr. Hitchens, Mr. Semler.

Legal Externship (2 or 3 hrs.)
A student participating in a for-credit externship should enroll in Legal Externship. A student's placement must be for uncompensated legal work under the supervision of an attorney. Placements include federal, state, and local government agencies, judicial chambers, prosecutors’ and defenders’ offices, law firms, corporate general counsels’ offices, public interest organizations, and labor unions. Students may receive two credits for 120 hours of uncompensated fieldwork or three credits for 180 hours of fieldwork. Each student submits periodic detailed time logs to the Clinical Programs Office to obtain credit for the fieldwork. Students must seek approval for proposed placements by filling out the online placement approval form. Students should obtain approval of placements before the semester begins.

Students in their first for-credit externship should also register for one of the "Becoming a Lawyer" seminars. Students in their second or further for-credit externship do not register for Becoming a Lawyer. These latter students will be overseen by the directors of the Office of Career and Professional Development. Faculty instructors may convene periodic seminar meetings or may meet with each student several times over the course of the semester. Students turn in detailed time-logs and do some reflective writing about their field experience. Grading is pass/fail. Students are encouraged to seek a new field placement for each semester. A student who wishes to stay in a single placement for a second semester must receive approval from the Director of Experiential Education. Ms. Frost, Prof. Martin, Ms. Tschirch.

Legal Issues of the Middle East Peace Process (2 or 3hrs.)
This law school course will consider legal issues related to the Israeli/Palestinian conflict, with special reference to the challenge of Jerusalem. We will consider the primary texts beginning with the Balfour Declaration and progressing through the relevant UN resolutions, Israeli laws and regulations. At least three weeks will be devoted to legal and political issues related to the juridical status of Jerusalem. We will analyze international agreements that may bear on Jerusalem, including the UNESCO and Hague Conventions and bi-lateral treaties such as the Vatican-Israel Fundamental Agreement, the Jordan-Israel Peace Accord and the Jordan-Palestinian Authority 2013 Jerusalem Agreement. We will discuss, as well, the present political situation in Jerusalem and proposals to alleviate the recurrent violence in the City.

Another two weeks will focus on legal issues related to Holy Places. We will also review legal issues related to the Israeli "occupation" of the West Bank and will read the ICJ and Israeli Supreme Court "Wall" opinions as they relate to Jerusalem. Other issues to be addressed include those related to the `holy basin', the legal status of the Arab minority, planning proposal to extend and expand the City both eastwards and westwards, and economic and political issues. We will consider the various proposals to divide the City or place all or part of it under international jurisdiction. We will consider analogous problems related to `divided cities' such as Berlin and Belfast, as well as examples of international administration, and divided and shared sovereignty.

While this is a legal course, we will consider the political and religious aspects of present events in Israel/Palestine as well, including the two state and one state solutions, Islamic and Jewish radicalism and the situation of the Christian minority. There will be a number of guest speakers

This is a two credit course that does not meet law school paper requirements. A student who wishes to write a paper that satisfies those requirements can receive a third credit with the prior permission of the instructor. Prof. Breger.

National Security Law and Policy Seminar (2 or 3 hrs.) — opt. QP
The seminar will examine the issues that arise when general legal standards and processes are applied to national security activities. In light of the development of national security law since World War II, the seminar explores a range of legal, constitutional, and policy problems relating to the conflict between accepted legal principles, individual rights, and national security requirements. The objectives are to increase understanding of broader constitutional, legal, political, and governmental issues, as well as the peculiar nature of national security programs. Students are expected to contribute to class sessions on a regular and meaningful basis. Depending on the professor, this course may require a qualifying course paper that fulfills one half of the upper-level writing requirement. Refer to Academic Rule XIII — Writing Requirement and Directed Research. Mr. Hodgkinson, Ms. Hodgkinson, Prof. Perez.

Public International Law (3 hrs.)
An introductory course exploring legal elements underlying relations and obligations among nations and their rights and responsibilities to each other and to their citizens. The problems this course examines cut across the major issues of international legal studies. These problems may include sources and subjects of international law, problems of international jurisdiction, international claims, international organization, foreign investment, international finance, environmental protection, economic sanctions, law of the sea, international human rights, and use of force in the international system. The students explore these issues against the background of crucial events of our era. At the discretion of the instructor, this course may include writing components which fulfill a portion of the upper-level writing requirement (portfolio). Refer to Academic Rule XIII — Writing Requirement and Directed Research. Prof. Ludwikowski, Prof. Watson.

Spanish for Lawyers (2 hrs.)
This course is aimed at helping lawyers, law students, practicing lawyers and legal professionals who have an intermediate to high level of Spanish speaking skills. Fluency is not essential. In this course, students will develop and improve the necessary cultural and linguistic competence needed for discussing legal matters in Spanish. Students receive hands-on training for client-lawyer interactions and develop awareness about customs, beliefs and etiquette found in Spanish speaking countries. This course is taught in Spanish. Prof. Campos-Dintrans

Vis International Arbitration Moot (2 hrs.)
The Vis International Arbitration Competition is the premier international arbitration moot court in the world. Competitors come from more than 150 universities in 50 different countries. During the year, students write two full-length (35-page) briefs on a complex case in an international business transaction. Following completion of the briefs, the CUA team travels to Vienna, Austria, for a weeklong competition where they square off in four rounds of oral arguments before panels of three arbitrators. The arbitrators are typically leading international arbitration lawyers from around the world. To maximize the learning experience, the organizers of the Vis match schools from common-law countries against schools from civil-law countries and place them before arbitrators drawn from both legal traditions.Mr. Weinstein.

Courses with a writing requirement are identified by the following symbols found in the key provided below:

req. QP — required qualifying course paper
opt. QP — optional qualifying course paper
req. PP — required qualifying portfolio paper
opt. PP — optional qualifying portfolio paper
E or QP — examination or qualifying course paper
E or PP — examination or qualifying portfolio paper
WC — advanced writing course

For the complete listing of courses, visit the Courses of Instruction section of the law school Announcements catalogue.