Rett Ludwikowski


  • Columbus School of Law
  • Expertise

  • Comparative and International Law
  • International Trade
  • Legal and Political Theory
  • Professor Ludwikowski holds doctorate degrees in law and legal and political theory. Until 1982 he taught law and politics and held the chair of Modern Legal and Political Movements and Ideas and was the chairman of the Division of Law and Business at the Jagiellonian University in Krakow, Poland.

    After coming to the United States in 1982, Professor Ludwikowski continued his research work, while
    holding several visiting scholar and visiting fellow positions, including the USICA Program, U.S. State
    Department (1981), The Heritage Foundation (1981), Elizabethtown College, PA (1982-1983), and the
    Hoover Institute, Stanford University (1983). He was also a recipient of a Fulbright Scholarship (1997 and
    2004) and the residential Fellowship of Max Planck Institute in Hamburg, Germany (1989). He came to
    the Catholic University of America in 1984 and has been a professor of law at the Columbus School of
    Law since 1985 and the director of the International Business and Trade Summer Law Program in Poland
    since 1991. Since 2017, he holds a position of Professor Emeritus.

    Professor Ludwikowski served as the director of the Comparative and International Law Institute since the institute's inception in 1985 through 2020. From 2001 to 2003 he was the managing editor of Comparative Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, a multi-volume publication of Oceana Publications, Inc.

    Professor Ludwikowski has authored 20 books, including his most recently published books, International Trade. Warsaw: C.H. Beck, 2006 and The Courts in the United States, TNOIK, Toruń 2008.

    Research and Writing


    Ja-Bog, Czyli Życie po Życiu Nowej Ery ,–"I-God. Life After Life of the New Age"1st ed. Krakow: Jagiellonia, S.A., 1992; 2 nd ed (enlarged and updated) TNOIK, Toruń,.2013

    History of Polish Legal and Political Ideas, Wolters-Kluwer, 2012.

    "International Trade" Warsaw: C.H. Beck, 1 st ed, 2006; 2 nd ed . 2012,. 3 nd ed.( enlarged and updated) 2012, 4 th ed. 2019.

    “Presidential Elections in the United States in Comparative Perspective”, "(co-authored with Anna Ludwikowski), LexisNexis, 2009

    "The Courts in the United States: Structure and Jurisdiction" (co-authored with Anna Ludwikowski), TNOIK, Toruń, 2008.

    "Comparative Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms" Vol. I. Oceana Publications Inc., 2002.

    "Comparative Constitutional Law" Toruń: TNOIK, 2000.

    "Regulations of International Trade and Business" author , Vol. I International Trade, ABC , 1996

    "Regulations of International Trade and Business" (editor & co-author). Vol. II, International Business
    Transactions, ABC. 1998.

    "Constitution Making in the Countries of Former Soviet Dominance" Duke University Press, 1996.

    "The Beginning of the Constitutional Era. A Comparative Study of the First American and European Constitution" (co-authored with William Fox, Jr.). CUA Press, 1993.

    "America --- the World of Business", Cracow's Industrial Society, 1991.

    "Constitutionalism and Human Rights: America, Poland and France" (co-editor with Kenneth Thompson). Miller Center, Univ. of Virginia, 1991.

    "Continuity and Change in Poland" CUA Press, 1991.

    "The Crisis of Communism, Its Meaning, Origins and Phases" Washington, DC: Pergamon- Brassey's, 1986.

    "Main Currents of Polish Political Thought 1815-1890," Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe,

    "Essays on Galician Political Movements and Ideas, 1848-1892" Krakow 1980: Jagiellonian University Press (received award of the Ministry of Science, Education and Technology).

    "John Stuart Mill" (co-authored with J. Woleński). Warszawa: Państwowy Instytut Naukowy, 1979. (Received Award of the Rector of The Jagiellonian University.)

    "Black Radicalism in the United States" Warsaw: PWN, 1976. (Received Award of the Rector of The
    Jagiellonian University).

    "The Conservatism of the Kingdom of Poland During the Inter-Insurrectional Period: Reflections on Ideology and Politics" Jagiellonian University Press, 1976. (Received Award of the Ministry of Science,
    Education and Technology.)


    No Straight Shots. Is America Still a Bastion of Democracy and a Shield Against Terrorism? Państwo i Prawo, Nr 6/2022

    Autorytaryzm demokratyczny w Stanach Zjednoczonych. Unikalny hybrydalny ustrój polityczny czy terminologiczna kwadratura koła? (Democratic Authoritarianism in the United States. A Unique Hybrid Political System or a Terminological Squaring of the Circle?) co-authored with Izabela Kraśnicka, Państwo i Prawo, Nr 6/2021

    Comparative Arguments in the Legal Debate Over Judiciary Reform in Poland (co-authored with Izabela Kraśnicka), Krakowskie Studia Międzynarodowe, Nr 2/2021

    Transformacja amerykańsko-chińskich relacji politycznych i handlowych w okresie globalnej pandemii (Transformation of US-China political and trade relations during the global pandemic), Review of International European and Comparative Law, Vol. XVIII Kraków 2020.

    Overview of the Trade Relations Between the European Community/Union and the United States at the Threshold of Globalization and Post-globalization Era, Bialystok Legal Studies, vol. 25 nr 3, Bialystok 2020.

    Global or strategic trade? Some observations on President Donald Trump’s style of making domestic and foreign policy, Ius Novum, Vol. 13, nr 4, Warsaw 2019.

    Rett R. Ludwikowski Amerykanizacja polskiej polityki i prawa - lekcja z komparatystyki czy  komparatystyczna dekoracja? Americanization of the Polish politics and law - a lesson from  the  comparative studies or a comparative decoration? In: Amerykańska myśl polityczna, ekonomiczna i prawna – zagadnienia wybrane (tom I) American legal, political & economic thought – selected problems (volume I) Poznań –Łódz, 2018.

    Rett R. Ludwikowski, „Nowa era” czy tylko „jeden etap” w historii Sadu Najwyzszeg Stanów Zjednoczonych? („New era” or just „one stage” in the history of the Supreme Court of the United States?) (Panstwo i Prawo (State and Law) 2017.

    Rett R. Ludwikowski, Anna M. Ludwikowska, Two Firsts: A Comparative Study of the American and the Polish Constitutions. It is a shorter and amended version of the article published by Rett R. Ludwikowski /in/ 8 Mich. Y.B. Int’l Legal Stud. 117 (1987), and it is republished with a permission from Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies. The article was supplemented by comments of Anna M. Ludwikowska who also edited the entire text (forthcoming as a chapter in the book dedicated to Prof. Andrzej Balaban) 2017.

    Rett R. Ludwikowski, Politicization and Judicialization of the U.S Chief Executive’s Political and Criminal Responsibility: A Threat to Constitutional Integrity or a Natural Result of the Constitution’s Flexibility? Republished in 2016, in the book dedicated to Prof. Marek Bojarski. It is an amended and updated version of the article published in 2002 (republished with the permission of the AM. J. COMP. L. SUPP)

    Anna Ludwikowski, Rett R.Ludwikowski, Prezydencjalizm amerykanski w swietle reformy imigracyjnej Baraka Obamy (American Presidentialism from the Perspective of President’s Obama Reform of Immigration ,_Krakowskie Studia Miedzynarodowe, Kracow’s International Studies) 2015.

    R.R. Ludwikowski “Początki i zmierzch filibustering w Stanach Zjednoczonych"  (Origins and Twilight of Filibustering in the United States), chapter in the book dedicated to Prof Sobolewski , Kraków 2015.

    R.R. Ludwikowski, Czy najlepsza na swiecie? Kilka refleksji sceptycznych o konstytucji Stanów (The best in the world? A couple of skeptical reflections on the Constitution of the United States ) chapter in the book, Ustroje, Tradycje, Porównania,_ _(Political systems, Traditions, Comparisons) ,W-wa 2015.

    "Education and Promotion of Human Rights from a European and American Perspective", Cracow's International Studies, Vo 2/5 2008, pp. 99-116.

    “Rebuttable Presumptions - New Developments in the U.S. “War” with Chinese Subsidies” (Customs and International Trade Bar Association, Quarterly Newsletter, winter 2014).

    "Toward Ideological Opposition: Academic Liberalism and Analytical Conservatism in the Polish People’s Republic,"  chapter in the book , Mysl i Polityka (Ideas and Politics), Krakow 2011.

    "The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the American Constitutional Development," chapter in the book, Amerykomania II, Krakow 2011. "

    Miedzy Utopia i Realiami Historycznymi; Polskie Przemiany Ustrojowe konca XVIII w. w

    Zachodnioeuropekskich i Amerykanskich Ocenach Politycznych, chapter in the book, Widziany z Zewnatrz (Seen from Outside), vol I, 2011.

    "Protection of Human Rights in the Presidential and Semi-Presidential Systems”---chapter in the book, Political Values, ( AFM, 2010, Krakow).

    "At the Cradle of the Polish Political Culture." Pressje, 12/2007-08.

    "Limits of Universalism: Protection of Human Rights in Europe and America in Historical and Comparative Perspective." Politeja, 2/6/2006.

    "Constitutionalization of Human Rights in Latin America and the Countries of the Former Soviet Union," Georgia Journal of Intern. and Comp. Law, Vol 33, No. 1, Fall 2004, pp.1-113.

    "American Antidumping Regulations. Protectionism or Protection Against Unfair Trade." Rozprawy prawnicze, Zakamycze, 2005.

    "Constitutionalization of Human Rights in Selected Countries of the Region of the Former Soviet Dominance." Banner of Law Through the Word, Zakamycze (2002).

    "The Latin American Hybrid Constitutionalism. The United States Presidentialism in the Civil Law Melting Pot." Boston University International Law Journal, Vol. 21, No. 1 (Spring 2003).

    "Politicization and Judicialization of the U.S. Chief Executive's Political and Criminal Responsibility: A Threat to Constitutional Integrity or a Natural Result of the Constitution's Flexibility?" American Journal of Comparative Law, Vol. L, Supplement (2002).

    "Supreme Law or Basic Law? Decline of the Concept of Constitutional Supremacy." Cordozo International
    and Comparative Law Journal Vol 9/2 (2001).

    "Legal Aspects of Presidential Elections in the United States," 4/662. State and Law, Panstwo i Prawo (April 2001).

    "Constitutional Culture in East-Central European Democracies." Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law, Vol 29, No 1 (2000). (Published also by Institute of Public Affairs, Warsaw (2001), /in:/ Constitutional Cultures (ed. M. Wyrzykowski).

    "Mixed" Constitutions-Product of an East-Central European Constitutional Melting Pot." Boston University International Law Journal. Vol. 16, No. 1 (Spring 1998).

    “Democracy”, article in Encyklopedia Socjologii, (Encyclopedia of Sociology), , Oficyna Naukowa, Warszawa 1998.

    "Fundamental Constitutional Rights in the New Constitutions of Eastern and Central Europe." Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law. Vol. 3, No. 1 (Spring 1995).

    "Constitution Making in the Countries of Former Soviet Dominance: Current Development.", Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law. Vol. 23, No. 2 (1993).

    "The Polish Constitutional Traditions in Comparative Perspective." Constitutional Traditions in Poland and Europe: Historical Dimensions, ed. J.S. Pula, M.B. Biskupski) (1993).

    "Main Models of Judicial Review in the Contemporary World: A Comparative Study" Economic & Legal Studies, Vol. XLVIII (1993).

    "Searching for a New Constitutional Model for East-Central Europe." Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce. Vol. 17 (Nov. 1, 1991).

    “Bicentennial of the Polish Third of May Constitution- 1791—1991”, foreword, The Embassy of the Republic of Poland, Washington D.C. May 1991.

    "The French Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen and the American Constitutional Development." The American Journal of Comparative Law. Vol. XXVM (1990).

    "The Beginning of the Constitutional Era: A Bicentennial Comparative Study of the American and French Constitutions." Michigan Journal of Int. Law. Vol. 11, No. 1 (Fall 1989).

    "Glasnost as a Conservative Revolution." The Intercollegiate Review  (Fall 1989).

    "State-Sponsored Domestic Terrorism: The Case of Poland." Terrorism. Nr. 12 (1990).

    "Soviet Constitutional Changes of Glasnost Era in a Historical Perspective." The New York School of Law International and Comparative Law Review. Vol. 10, No. 2 (1989).

    "Political and Legal Instruments in Supporting and Combating Terrorism: Current Developments." 11 Terrorism International Journal (1988).

    "Judicial Review in the Socialist Legal System: Current Developments." 37 International and Comparative Law Review (1988).

    “I Choose Freedom”, introduction to the book by V. Kravchenko, Routedge 1988.

    "Aspects of Terrorism." Vol 10 ,Terrorism International Journal (1987).

    "Socialist Legal Theory." 2 Boston College International and Comp. Law Review, X (1987).

    "Two Firsts: A Comparative Study of the American and Polish Constitution." VIII Michigan Yearbook of International Legal Studies (1987).

    "Gorbachev and his Reforms." Modern Age (Spring 1986).

    "The Roots of Polish Catholicism." Center Journal (Spring 1984).

    "Polens Konservatives Erbe." Criticon (July-August 1984).

    "Academic Freedom in Poland." Center Journal, (Spring 1984).

    "Totalitarianism and American Open Society." The Institute for Entrepreneurship of Benedictine College Lecture Series (1983-84).

    "Will the Crisis of Communism Begin in Poland?" Stanford University Press (1983).

    "Liberal Traditions in Polish Political Thought." The Journal of Libertarian Studies. Vol. 5, No. 3 (Summer 1981).

    "Polish Political Culture: Myth, Traditions, and the Present Era." Ossolineum Press. Wroclaw, 1980.

    "The Traditions of Polish Anarchism: Its Influences on Polish Political Culture." Krakow (1980).

    "The Political Origin of the Stereotype. "A Pole, A Catholic." Krakow (1978).

    "The Two Variants of Galician Tri-Loyalism." Krakow (1977).

    "John Stuart Mill and Socialism." Krakow (1971).

    "John Stuart Mill's Concept of the Functions of the State: Laissez-faire and Interventionism." Kraków (1971)

    Books and Articles in Progress

    "Podejście globalne czy strategiczne – kilka refleksji nad stylem prowadzenia polityki przez prezydenta Donalda Trumpa ( Global or Strategic Approach---Several Reflections on the Style of the Political Decision on making of President Donald Trump (in print in Ius Novum, University of Łazarski in Warsaw).

    Grants and Prizes 

    Medal of Merits from the University of Wroclaw, Poland, 2007.

    Officer's Medal of Merits, from the President of Poland, 2005.

    Medal of Merits from the Copernicus University of Torun, Poland, 2006.

    Senior Fulbright Award, 2004.

    Senior Fulbright Award, 1997.

    Research grant from Earhart Foundation, 1991-92 and 2004.

    Research grant from Bradley Foundation, 1992.

    Residential Fellowship, Max-Planck-Institute, Hamburg, Germany, 1990.

    Research grant from Batory Foundation, 1990.

    Research grant from the Rosenstiel Foundation, 1989, 1990.

    Research grant from Wilbur Foundation, 1989.

    Research grant from Earhart Foundation, 1988.

    Research grant from Earhart Foundation and Eyer Wilbur Foundation, 1987.

    Visiting Professor with grant from Earhart Foundation,

    The Catholic University of America, January - May 1984 (teaching position).