The academic rules at the date of publication are listed below. From time to time, the faculty may promulgate new rules or amend the existing rules. Students are considered to be on notice of changes or additions to these rules when they are approved by the faculty and posted on the website of the Law School. In extraordinary cases, exceptions to these rules may be granted by the Dean or the Academic Dean for good cause shown.

Definitions. Throughout these rules:
  • “Dean” shall refer to the Dean of the Law School (or the Dean's designee) and “Academic Dean” shall refer to the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs (or the Academic Dean's designee). References to the “Office of Academic Affairs” shall refer to the person or office within the Office of Academic Affairs charged with the pertinent responsibility.
  • “Law School” shall refer to the Columbus School of Law at The Catholic University of America. “Catholic University” shall refer to The Catholic University of America.
  • "Credit hour" or "hour of credit" shall refer to an amount of work that reasonably approximates not less than one hour of classroom or direct faculty instruction and at least two hours of out-of-class student work per week for fifteen weeks, or the equivalent amount of work over a different amount of time. For field placement, clinical, simulation, and co-curricular courses, and other academic work, credit hour is at least an equivalent amount of total work as described above.
  • "Mandatory course" shall refer to courses specified in Rule 1.B. "Menu course" shall refer to courses specified in Rule 1.C.
  • "Semester" shall refer to a fall or spring academic term and does not include the summer term. "Term" includes the fall, spring, and summer terms.

J.D. PROGRAM

1. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
2. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, COURSE WITHDRAWAL, AND DIVISION SWITCHES (OR DIVISION CHANGE)
3. LIMITATION ON SIMULTANEOUS ENROLLMENT IN OTHER DEGREE PROGRAMS
4. GRADING AND GOOD STANDING
5. RETAKING REQUIRED COURSES
6. EXCLUSION AND READMISSION
7. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS
8. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
9. EXAMINATIONS
10. COMPLETION OF COURSES: INCOMPLETES
11. AVAILABILITY OF GRADES AND CLASS RANKS
12. WRITING REQUIREMENT AND DIRECTED RESEARCH
13. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING REQUIREMENT
14. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS REQUIREMENT AND TRANSITION TO PRACTICE REQUIREMENT
15. PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENT
16. STUDENT RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTS
17. COURSES OUTSIDE THE LAW SCHOOL DURING THE REGULAR SCHOOL YEAR
18. SUMMER & INTERSESSION COURSES AT OTHER LAW SCHOOLS
19. INTERRUPTION OF STUDIES
20. STUDENT CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE
21. BAR EXAMINATIONS
22. CREDIT THAT MUST BE EARNED IN REGULARLY SCHEDULED CLASSROOM SESSIONS OR DIRECT FACULTY INSTRUCTION
23. CLINICAL COURSES
24. TRANSFER OF CREDIT POLICY
25. COMPLETION OF COURSE EVALUATIONS
26. ADVANCED STANDING FOR GRADUATES OF FOREIGN LAW PROGRAMS
27. STUDENT COMPLAINTS REGARDING COMPLIANCE WITH THE ABA STANDARDS 
28. REQUIRED PARTICIPATION IN ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE PROGRAM

LL.M. PROGRAM
1. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
2. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, AND WITHDRAWAL 
3. GRADING
4. GOOD STANDING, PROBATION, EXCLUSION, AND READMISSION
5. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS
6. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
7. EXAMINATIONS
8. COMPLETION OF COURSES: INCOMPLETES
9. AVAILABILITY OF GRADES
10. WRITING REQUIREMENT
11. STUDENT RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTS
12. COURSES OUTSIDE THE LAW SCHOOL
13. ACCOMMODATION UNDER ADA
14. INTERRUPTION OF STUDIES
15. AUDITS
16. STUDENT CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE
17. BAR EXAMINATIONS
18. TRANSFER OF CREDIT
19. STUDENT COMPLAINTS REGARDING COMPLIANCE WITH THE ABA STANDARDS

M.L.S. PROGRAM
1. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
2. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, WITHDRAWAL, TRANSFER CREDIT
3. GRADING
4. GOOD STANDING, PROBATION, EXCLUSION AND READMISSION
5. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS
6. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
7. EXAMINATIONS

J.D. PROGRAM
1. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
To be eligible for the degree of Juris Doctor a student must complete the below listed requirements.
  1. Earn at least 87 hours of credit with a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.50. Students who began the J.D. program prior to the Fall 2017 semester must earn at least 84 hours of credit with a cumulative grade point average of at least 2.50. Students must complete required credit hours no later than 84 months after the student has started at the Law School or a law school from which the Law School has accepted transfer credit. In extraordinary circumstances, a student may be permitted to exceed the 84 month limitation, in which case the Law School shall place in the student's file a statement signed by an appropriate Law School official explaining such circumstances.
  2. Satisfactorily complete the following mandatory courses: Civil Procedure; Constitutional Law I; Constitutional Law II; Contracts; Criminal Law; Criminal Procedure I; Evidence; Lawyering Skills I; Lawyering Skills II; Professional Responsibility; Property; and Torts.
  3. Satisfactorily complete six of the following menu courses: Administrative Law; Agency or Agency & Partnership; Commercial Transactions; Conflict of Laws; Corporations; Family Law; Federal Income Taxation; Remedies; Sales and Leases; and Trusts and Estates.
  4. For students who have a cumulative grade point average below 3.00 after their second year in the full-time division, or after their third year in the part-time division, satisfactorily complete at least one course of three or more credits that has been designated by the Academic Dean as a bar preparation course.
  5. Satisfactorily complete the Writing Requirement.
  6. Satisfactorily complete the Experiential Learning Requirement.
  7. Satisfactorily complete the Professional Education Requirement.
  8. Attend the Law School for a minimum number of semesters. Students enrolled in the full-time program must attend six semesters. Students enrolled in the part-time program must attend eight semesters. Full-time students who attend one Law School summer session of three or more credits may switch to part-time status in their final semester and may still graduate in six semesters. Part-time students who attend two Law School summer sessions of four or more credits may accelerate their graduation by one semester (i.e., complete coursework by the end of their seventh semester). A part-time student who switches to the full-time division at the end of the first year of law school may graduate after six semesters. Transfer students may count semesters attended at another law school toward the residency requirement.


2. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, COURSE WITHDRAWAL, AUDITING AND DIVISION CHANGES

  1. Registration Dates
    Registration dates are listed in the Academic Calendar. Students who fail to register for any courses prior to the first day of class incur a late registration fee. Students may add or drop courses only through the Add/Drop period listed on the Academic Calendar. For course withdrawals, see Rule 2.C.

  2. Course Loads
    A full-time student may not enroll for more than 16 or fewer than 12 credit hours per semester. A part-time student may not enroll for more than 12 hours or fewer than 8 credit hours per semester. Exceptions require written permission from the Office of Academic Affairs.

  3. Course Withdrawals
    Withdrawal from a course after the Add/Drop deadline requires the permission of the Office of Academic Affairs.  After mid-semester (including the summer term), course withdrawals will not be approved absent a showing of extraordinary circumstances. In a clinical course, permission will be granted only after consultation by the Office of Academic Affairs with the course instructor to ensure that client and clinic interests are protected in the event of withdrawal.

  4. Auditing of Classes
    Students may audit any course with the permission of the Office of Academic Affairs and the course instructor. Auditing students do not take the examination or participate in any other graded exercises in the class and do not receive credit. Audited classes are including in determining a student's maximum and minimum course load per semester. Auditors are subject to class attendance requirements.  No audited course can satisfy any graduation requirement.

  5. Changing Divisions
    Changes between part-time and full-time divisions may be requested by written application to the Office of Academic Affairs. Ordinarily a student will be allowed to change divisions only once.

3. LIMITATION ON SIMULTANEOUS ENROLLMENT IN OTHER DEGREE PROGRAMS

Students may not simultaneously enroll in another degree program outside the Law School without the prior approval of the Academic Dean. Prior approval is not required for students to enroll in a Law School joint degree program with another department of Catholic University.

4. GRADING AND EXCLUSION

  1. Grades
    Grades for all students will be based on the following letter-grade scale: A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D, F (Failure), F* (Administrative Failure). The grade of F* is given to students who did not officially withdraw from the course and who failed to attend and participate in course activities through the end of the course period, as determined by the instructor.

    Letter-based grades will be converted to numerical values to calculate grade point averages, to determine class rank, and to determine academic status as follows: A+=4.33; A=4.00; A-=3.67; B+=3.33; B=3.00; B-=2.67; C+=2.33; C=2.00; C-=1.67; D=1.00; F=0; F*=0.

    A course may be offered on a pass/fail basis. In a pass/fail course, the grade does not have a numeric value and does not count toward the calculation of a student's grade point average, class rank, or for purposes of exclusion.

    Only a failing grade may be appealed. The procedures for appealing a failing grade are available at http://policies.cua.edu/academicundergrad/appealfailinggrades.cfm.

  2. Academic Exclusion
    Students who have a cumulative grade point average at the end of their first year or any subsequent academic year of less than 2.50 will be excluded from the Law School. For purposes of this rule, full-time students complete their first year after their first two semesters of law school and part-time students complete their first year after their first four semesters of law school. Transfer students are assessed based on work at the Law School.

  3. Students at Academic Risk
    Students who have a cumulative grade point average of less than 3.00 at the end of any semester will be notified after the semester that they are academically at risk. This notification will not appear on the academic transcript.

  4. Eligibility for Academic Journals
    Students who have a cumulative grade point average of less than 3.00 (based on a minimum of two semesters) are not eligible to join a student academic journal.

  5. Standards of Grade Distribution
    In all courses other than clinic courses and courses of fewer than 10 students, the grade distribution shall have a mean falling within a range of 3.00–3.30.

  6. Enforcement of Distributional Ranges
    1. Faculty members are responsible for calculating and verifying the mean grade for each course (excluding delayed examinations and papers) and for including such information in their submission of grades. For purposes of computing the mean, faculty members shall calculate all grades of C, C-, D or F as a 2.00. However, this has no effect on the calculation of an individual student’s grade point average. Each student will receive the numerical value of whatever grade the student earns in a course (i.e., an A+ will be calculated as a 4.33; an A as a 4.00; an A- as 3.67; a B+ as a 3.33; a B as a 3.00; a B- as 2.67; a C+ as a 2.33; a C as 2.00; a C- as 1.67; a D as 1.00; an F and F*as 0). Pass/fail grades are ignored for this purpose. In assessing compliance, the top and bottom of the range is the number taken to two decimal points (e.g., 3.00).

    2. If a faculty member submits grades outside the required range, the Academic Dean will return the grades for appropriate adjustment. Grades not adjusted will not be entered into any student’s academic record.

    3. A faculty member may submit a written request for an exception from the required mean with a detailed written justification to the Dean and the Academic Dean. The Dean may grant an exception only upon a showing of extraordinary circumstances. Any approved exemption by the Dean shall be communicated to the Academic Dean and the Chair of the Academic Affairs Committee, with an explanation of the extraordinary circumstances.

    4. After approval by the Academic Dean, the Registrar shall post the mean for all courses.

5. RETAKING COURSES 

If a student’s grade in a mandatory course is an F or F*, the student must retake the course the next time it is offered in the student’s division. The Office of Academic Affairs will determine the section of the course in which such a student is enrolled. If a student's grade in a non-mandatory course is an F or F*, the student may, at the student's option, retake the course. Grades for each course (the first and subsequent times taken) will appear on the student's transcript and be included in the computation of the student's cumulative average. A student may not retake a course for credit in which a passing grade was received. For audits, see Rule 2.D.

6. READMISSION FOLLOWING EXCLUSION 
  1. Readmission to the law school after dismissal for academic failure will be allowed only when there is an affirmative showing that the dismissal did not indicate that the individual lacks the capacity to complete the Law School's program of legal education and be admitted to the bar.

  2. The Dean shall decide all questions of readmission after consultation with a standing committee selected by the Dean, one member of which shall be a regular member of the faculty.

  3. For every readmission of a previously disqualified student, a statement of the consideration that led to the decision shall be placed in the student's file.

  4. An excluded student may be considered for readmission once only and normally will not be readmitted to enroll for either of the two semesters following the student's exclusion. A student may request a waiver of this two semester waiting period from the Dean and give reasons therefor.

  5. An excluded student seeking readmission must be able to complete the remaining work for the degree within the maximum period of candidacy as defined in Rule I.

  6. A student who is readmitted following exclusion will ordinarily be required, in the first year of readmission, to repeat all mandatory courses in which the student did not previously receive a grade of B- or above. Only work completed prior to exclusion with a grade of B- or above will be applied toward degree requirements and toward the student's cumulative grade point average.

  7. A complete petition for readmission to the Law School must be received by the Dean before June for readmission in the Fall semester and before November for readmission in the Spring semester.
7. CLASS ATTENDANCE
Regular and punctual attendance at class meetings or equivalent exercises is a condition of receiving credit in all courses. Classes meet 50 minutes for each hour of credit assigned. If a student misses more than 100 minutes of class for each credit hour assigned to a course, the instructor may direct the Office of Academic Affairs to exclude the student from the course. The grade for an excluded student is F*.

For example, if a three-credit class meets three times a week for 50 minutes, the instructor may invoke this rule when a student misses more than 6 classes. If the three-credit class meets two times a week for 75 minutes, the instructor may invoke this rule when a student misses more than 4 classes. In a two-semester course, this rule applies on a per semester basis. Instructors may set stricter attendance rules in limited-enrollment courses, including required attendance at the first or other specified class meetings. Each instructor is responsible for announcing and enforcing the specific attendance policy for that course.

Repeated exclusion from classes for violation of these rules shall be grounds for dismissal from the Law School upon a vote of the faculty.

8. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
  1. Mandatory and Menu Courses
    Except as provided below, for mandatory courses (other than Lawyering Skills courses) and menu courses, each student’s grade shall be based solely on anonymous written examination(s) administered pursuant to Rule 9, including one comprehensive exam. At the instructor's option, up to 30 percent of the final grade may be based on student work product other than the anonymous examination(s). The instructor should grade the non-examination components on an anonymous basis whenever feasible.

  2. Other Courses
    Instructors in courses other than mandatory and menu courses may establish components other than an examination on which to base grades.

  3. Instructor Option Regarding Classroom Performance
    At the instructor’s option, an instructor may raise or lower a student’s grade for the course by a single letter-grade step based on the instructor's assessment of classroom performance. A single letter-grade step change is a change from an A to an A+ or A-, from a B+ to an A- or B, etc. However, no grade of D or F may be created or altered through addition or subtraction of a step under this section. The grades for the class, including any classroom performance steps, must meet the grade distribution requirements of Rule 4(F).

9. EXAMINATIONS

  1. Times and Place for Examinations
    Examinations will be administered according to a posted schedule during a specific period following the end of all regular class meetings. All exams must be taken during that period. The posted examination schedule will designate specific starting times for exams and will be issued in draft form no later than the beginning of the term.  Examinations will be proctored.  Mid-term examinations (other than an end of term mid-term in a year-long course) are not subject to this rule.

  2. Time Limits for Examinations
    Except for a take-home examination, examinations will be between one and four hours, as determined by the instructor.

  3. Rescheduling of Examinations
    1. Prior to a scheduled examination, a student may request that the examination be rescheduled because of personal or family illness, an emergency, or an exam conflict. In all such instances, the student shall submit to the Office of Academic Affairs adequate and appropriate verification of the facts upon which any such request for rescheduling is based.  

    2. No examination will be rescheduled to a time prior to the regularly scheduled time for the examination without the express approval of the Academic Dean and the instructor of the relevant course, and only in extraordinary circumstances. 

    3. If an examination is rescheduled to after the conclusion of the final examination period, the grade for the course may only by pass/fail, unless the Academic Dean determines that extraordinary circumstances warrant a letter grade.

    4. If a student has two exams in less than 24 hours (the 24-hour period is computed from the starting time for each exam), one exam may be rescheduled so that the exams will be 24 hours apart.

    5. Take-home exams and paper due dates are excluded from rescheduling considerations.

  4. Failure to Appear for Examination
    Any student who, without previously approved rescheduling or due to extraordinary circumstances, fails to appear for an examination, including a take-home examination, at the time scheduled will receive an F for that exam.

  5. Take-Home Examinations
    An instructor is permitted to give a take-home examination in any course other than a mandatory or menu course. Take-home exams must be returnable no later than 48 hours after distribution.

  6. Materials in Examination Rooms
    Instructors should announce in class, advise the proctor, and indicate on the examination what materials, if any, students may use when taking the exam. Any non-permitted materials must be placed out of reach.

  7. Anonymity of Examinations
    Examinations are taken and graded anonymously. Students are responsible for obtaining exam numbers according to procedures set by the Office of Academic Affairs. Students must identify their exams using only their exam number. To preserve grading anonymity, students are prohibited from contacting the course instructor(s) on exam-related matters between the date that the exam is administered and the date that the grades are posted in Cardinal Station.

10. COMPLETION OF COURSES AND INCOMPLETES

  1. Students in all courses are expected to complete their coursework within the term in which the course is offered. In examination courses this means taking the exam at the time scheduled. In courses in which research papers comprise all or part of the coursework, such papers must be submitted at the times fixed by the instructor, but not later than the last day of scheduled exams for the term. When a student is unable to complete the course requirements (other than examinations) on the due date because of illness or other hardship, the student should advise the instructor promptly. The instructor may then direct the entry of a grade of “Incomplete” for the course. Incomplete grades shall be used only in extraordinary cases and shall not be used when the student simply has failed to complete coursework.

  2. Incomplete grades must be made up at a time determined by the instructor in consultation with the Academic Dean and, in any event, no later than the mid-way point of the following term, as noted in the Academic Calendar. Failure to complete coursework by such date will result in the entry of a grade of F* for the course.

    A student whose transcript reflects a grade of incomplete will not be ranked.

11. AVAILABILITY OF GRADES AND CLASS RANKS

  1. Availability of Grades
    Final course grades are available through Cardinal Students.

  2. Class Rank
    Class ranks for J.D. students will be computed after each spring semester and upon graduation. Students will not be ranked at the completion of the first year unless all required courses have been completed and the student does not have any Incomplete grades at the time of ranking. Students are not eligible for ranking if they have failed to carry the minimum number of credits required for the academic year, if they visiting away for a semester or two during the academic year (except for graduating students, who may be eligible for ranking), or if they have an Incomplete grade at the time of ranking. Students completing their degrees in summer or mid-year will be ranked with J.D. students finishing in the following May. Transfer students will not be ranked during law school, and will be ranked at graduation only if they complete at least two thirds of the required credits for the J.D., i.e., 58 credits, at the Law School (56 credits for students beginning at the Law School prior to the Fall 2017 semester).

  3. Grade Changes
    All course grades are considered final once submitted to the Office of Academic Affairs. The Academic Dean may change an otherwise final grade only on written certification from the instructor that either: (1) the final grade reflects an incorrect mathematical computation or recordation or (2) in determining the particular exam or paper grade, the instructor evaluated the student’s work differently from that of all others in the course. (The latter criterion does not contemplate changes in the classroom performance Rule 8.C portion of any final grade).

    No final grade will be changed merely to prevent exclusion of a student, to assure academic credit for the course, or to improve class rank at the Law School or any other institution; or because, on review, the instructor is persuaded the student had a better (or worse) grasp of the course material than the exam or paper evidenced.

    I
    n no event may any final grade be changed unless the instructor’s written certification reaches the Academic Dean by the middle of the term following that for which the grade was entered.

  4. Submission of Grades
    Instructors are expected to submit final course grades as soon as possible. Grades are to be submitted no later than three weeks from the conclusion of the examination period. Instructors who are responsible for submitting one hundred or more final grades in a particular term may request an extension of up to one week from the Academic Dean. In order to award honors at graduation, grades of graduating students in their last term must be submitted at a time to be designated by the Academic Dean.

  5. Dean’s List
    At the end of the first year of legal study, students whose cumulative GPA is in the top third of their class and division will be honored by inclusion on the Dean’s List. At the end of each fall and spring semester thereafter, students whose cumulative GPA for the semester is in the top third of the class and the division in which they are enrolled for that semester will be honored by inclusion on the Dean’s List. Students are not eligible for inclusion on the Dean’s List if, in the relevant semester, they failed to carry the minimum credits required for the division in which they are enrolled for that semester, if they are visiting away, or if there is an “Incomplete” grade recorded for that semester. Although they will not be ranked in their class until graduation, transfer students are eligible for Dean’s List honors for any semester in which they satisfy all the conditions above. For purposes of Dean’s List recognition, any grades earned for summer courses will be included with those grades earned during the fall semester.

  6. Latin Honors
    The Law School awards academic honors to graduating J.D. students. The basis for the award of honors are: summa cum laude (top student in the part-time division and top three students in the full-time division); magna cum laude (top 10 percent of the graduating class in each division); and cum laude (top one-third of the graduating class in each division.)
12. WRITING REQUIREMENT
  1. Writing Requirement
    1. Each student must satisfactorily complete two writing courses, at least one of which must be a practice-oriented writing course.

    2. Except as provided below, a writing course is satisfactorily completed if the student attains a grade for the course of B- or above.
      1. For a qualifying course paper, an applied legal writing portfolio, or a course where the course grade is not the same as the grade for the writing component(s), the writing requirement is satisfied not by the course grade but by the grade for the writing components, which must total a B- or above.

      2. The course Law Journal Writing is satisfactorily completed with a passing grade.

  2. Writing Courses
    1. A writing course is a course that includes a graded substantial writing project or projects. A substantial writing project must include: (1) close faculty supervision of the writing process; (2) submission of at least one substantially complete draft in addition to the final product; (3) feedback on interim drafts in the form of written comments, regular conferences, or both; and (4) a research component appropriate to its scope and genre.

      A substantial writing project does not include re-working or extending prior papers, modifying work done for employers, the compiling of research done by others, or work undertaken or completed as a student research assistant.

    2. Practice-oriented writing courses are listed as such in the course Announcements and include the following: Appellate Advocacy, Legal Drafting (any section or specialty) and an Applied Legal Writing Portfolio.
      1. Applied Legal Writing Portfolio. An applied legal writing portfolio requires at least three (3) original writing projects, which may be part of one or more courses. The projects may be a variety of documents, such as: (1) a legal opinion letter to a client; (2) a demand letter or similar communication to an opposing party or attorney; (3) a pleading; (4) a memorandum of points and authorities; (5) a proposed order of settlement; (6) a contract, lease, license, or similar agreement; (7) an appellate brief; (8) comments on draft legislation or a proposed agency rule; (9) a will or trust agreement; (10) a proposed statute or agency rule; (11) or any other legal writing that is neither boilerplate nor substantially rewritten by an instructor. Each project must reflect substantial analytical and writing work, but need not be of any particular length.

    3. Other writing courses are listed as such in the course Announcements and include Law Journal Writing, Directed Research, and courses with a qualifying course paper. To receive writing credit for Directed Research or a qualifying course paper, the student must attend a workshop in Academic Legal Writing. The workshop is a noncredit, three-hour class offered at the beginning of each semester.
      1. Directed Research
        1. A student may register either for two consecutive terms (i.e., fall/spring; spring/fall; spring/summer; summer/fall) or for a single term. In a two-term project, the first term should be devoted primarily to conducting research; the second term should be devoted primarily to writing; the grade and credits will be awarded only upon the completion of the second term. Both credits will be awarded for the same term and will not be split between terms.

        2. When registering for Directed Research, the student must name a supervising instructor. The supervising instructor may not, for the duration of the Directed Research, be the student's supervisor for work the student performs as a paid research assistant.

        3. Although project length is left to the supervising instructor’s discretion, it is unlikely that a paper of acceptable quality could be done in fewer than 40 pages (or 10,000 words).

        4. To register for Directed Research the student must submit a topic statement signed by the supervising instructor, including the tentative research and writing schedule agreed to by the student and the instructor. At a minimum, this schedule should include dates for (1) the submission of a research bibliography; (2) submission of at least one substantially complete draft; (3) the return of the first draft to the student with extensive written comments; and (4) submission of a final paper that responds to the written comments. These stages, and any additional interim deadlines required by the supervising instructor, should be spread out over the term or terms for which the student is registered for the course.

        5. Unless otherwise specified by the instructor, the due date for the submission of the final paper is the last day of the examination period for the term in which the paper is due. If the final paper is not submitted by the end of the examination period, the instructor must enter a failing grade unless an Incomplete is justified under Rule 10.

      2. Qualifying Course Paper.
        1. A qualifying course paper is a paper or papers written in conjunction with a course with an enrollment of no more than 16 students. The instructor should publish in the syllabus the procedures to be followed and the criteria for the course paper(s). The student must submit a written statement of topic within the time designated by the instructor teaching the course (normally, within the first two weeks of the term). The student and instructor shall then agree on a tentative schedule for submission of drafts and provision of feedback.

        2. Although paper length is left to the supervising instructor’s discretion, it is unlikely that a single paper of acceptable quality could be done in fewer than 25 pages (6,250 words), or a similar combined page (or word) count for multiple shorter papers.

13. EXPERIENTIAL LEARNING REQUIREMENT

  1. Students shall satisfactorily complete one or more experiential courses for a total of at least six credit hours (the "Experiential Learning Requirement"). At least three experiential learning credits must be earned in a transition to practice course. Experiential courses will be listed as such in the Law School Announcements.

  2. An experiential course is a simulation course, a clinical course, a capstone course, or a field placement that is primarily experiential in nature; integrates doctrine, theory, skills, and legal ethics; engages students in performance of one or more professional skills such as interviewing, counseling, negotiation, fact-development and analysis, trial practice, document drafting, conflict resolution, organization and management of legal work, collaboration, and cultural competency; develops concepts underlying the professional skills being taught; provides multiple opportunities for performance; and provides opportunities for self evaluation.

  3. A transition to practice course is a clinic or other course that includes the general features of an experiential course and requires students to synthesize doctrine and skills; exercise professional judgment in the performance of a range of lawyering tasks in simulated or actual litigation, transactional matters, policy matters, or community legal education and training; assume a professional role and take responsibility for the progression or management of one or more simulated or actual cases, projects, or matters; offers the opportunity to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical issues in simulated or actual practice contexts; and includes a classroom instructional component involving the engagement of each student in skills performances that are assessed by the instructor.

  4. Credits earned in an experiential course may satisfy both the Experiential Learning Requirement and one of the two upper division writing requirements if the experimental course is also listed as an upper division writing course.

14. RESERVED


15. PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENT

All students are required to attend six professional education programs prior to graduation. Further information on these programs is set forth in the Rules of Professional Conduct for Law Students.

 

16. STUDENT RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPT

Each student’s file, containing material from application through graduation, is maintained at CUA Law. Information in the file is available to the student upon written request, consistent with the requirements imposed on the law school by CUA and by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (Buckley Amendment). The student record policy is online at http://policies.cua.edu/studentlife/studentrecordsfull.cfm

Student education records will not be disclosed without written permission of the student unless the release fits one of the exceptions in the CUA Student Records Policy, available online at: http://policies.cua.edu/studentlife/
studentrecordsfull.cfm.

Permanent and official transcripts of law school work are maintained in the CUA Enrollment Services Office. All requests for transcripts should be made to that office or through Cardinal Station.


17. COURSES OUTSIDE THE LAW SCHOOL DURING THE REGULAR SCHOOL YEAR

Matriculated students are expected to take all their courses at CUA Law. In circumstances related to family, health, and other unusual personal situations, the Academic Dean may permit a student to visit at another law school for not more than two semesters. Upon application to the Academic Dean, a student may also be permitted to visit at another school for no more than one semester to participate in a program for academic and professional advancement at another institution if the program is rigorous and unavailable at CUA Law. The time away from CUA Law may not exceed two semesters.

A student who visits at another law school must pay a “transient student fee” to CUA Law to cover administrative expenses and will receive credit only for courses in which the student receives a satisfactory grade ( i.e., equivalent of C+ or better according to the grading scale of the visited school). Such credits will satisfy the credit hour and residency requirements for the J.D. degree, but the grades will not be entered on the student’s permanent record and will not be included in calculating the student’s cumulative average and class rank. Students must earn a minimum of 56 credit hours (58 hours for students beginning in the Fall 2017 semester or later) at CUA Law to be ranked at graduation.

Except for students transferring from another ABA-accredited law school, or graduates of foreign law programs applying for Advanced Standing (see Rule 26), no credit toward the J.D. degree will be given for coursework done before matriculation at CUA Law. No credit will be granted toward the J.D. degree for work taken in a pre-admission program. For students enrolled in joint degree programs, CUA Law will accept 12 credits taken at the other CUA school. However, these credits do not count toward the 65 credit hours of regularly scheduled classroom sessions or direct faculty instruction necessary for graduation (see Rule 22). Moreover, no credits will be accepted toward the joint degree program if they were earned prior to law school matriculation.

Within the limits of maximum course load (Rule 2 supra), students may request permission from the Academic Dean to take courses relating to the law in other schools or departments of CUA for credit toward their J.D. degree. No more than three such courses will be approved unless the student is a joint degree candidate. Students should arrange for permission to take courses in the school or department before registration. Grades in such courses will be entered on the student's record but will not be computed into their average.

Within the limits of maximum course load (Rule 2 supra), students may request permission to take courses at other law schools for credit toward their CUA Law degree. Such permission will not be given unless the course is not offered at CUA Law, or unless it is impracticable for the student to take or have taken the course at CUA Law prior to graduation. The other law school shall apply its standards for admission, tuition, and fees for its course(s). Only courses in which satisfactory grades (the equivalent of C+ or better according to the grading scale of the visited school) are earned will be credited toward degree requirements at CUA Law.


18. SUMMER & INTERSESSION COURSES AT OTHER LAW SCHOOLS

  1. Approval will not be given for students to take courses elsewhere that are required courses here, or that will be offered here during the remainder of the student’s program of studies. Approval will not be given for summer or intersession courses that will officially begin or conclude during the regular law school year.

  2. Upon timely application to the Office of Academic Affairs, a student may be permitted to participate in another law school’s structured summer program abroad or intersession program where the program offers unusual academic, professional or cultural enrichment, even if the program includes non-required courses that are or may be offered here.

  3. Students employed more than 20 hours per week in the summer will not be authorized to take at another law school any combination of courses or credit hours, which require more than 10 classroom hours per week.

  4. No transfer credit will be given for summer or intersession coursework at another law school unless the student earns a grade that is satisfactory (the equivalent of C+ or better) according to the grading scale of that law school. Students are responsible for seeing that transcripts of summer or intersession work are forwarded promptly to CUA Law Registrar.

  5. Summer or intersession courses at other law schools will not count toward the residency requirements for the CUA Law J.D. degree.

19. INTERRUPTION OF STUDIES

  1. Academic Leave
    1. A student in good standing who must interrupt his or her studies for adequate reason, such as health or military service, may be granted an academic leave for a stated period, usually not to exceed one year. The student should apply in writing to the Academic Dean, stating the specific reasons for requiring the leave. An academic leave, if granted, will be effective as of the last day of the semester in which a student was most recently enrolled. Students on academic leave are expected to return to CUA Law when their stated duration of leave has expired. Students who do not return from an academic leave when scheduled to do so will be subject to Administrative Withdrawal during the semester for which they failed to return.

    2. The period of academic leave is counted as part of the time allowed for the completion of degree requirements. All degree requirements must be completed within 84 months after the student has commenced law study. Any outstanding “Incomplete” grades must be changed in accordance with the policy on incomplete grades by the date published in the Academic Calendar, whether a student is registered for the current semester or not. If the academic leave extends beyond the period approved by the Academic Dean, the student will be considered to have withdrawn from CUA Law. He or she must apply for readmission to be reinstated and satisfy current degree requirements.

    3. Students may apply for an academic leave for a semester if they are not enrolled in courses for that semester up until administrative withdrawals are processed for that term (usually the last date to enroll in any class offered for that semester,including modular (i.e. dynamically dated) classes.

  2. Term Withdrawal
    1. Students who wish to leave CUA Law temporarily during a semester in which they are enrolled in classes will receive a term withdrawal for that term. An additional request must be made if the student wishes to extend the leave into a future semester. This extension will be considered an academic leave subject to the terms stated above. The Office of Academic Affairs notifies the CUA Law Registrar and the CUA Law Financial Aid Office of this action. The student will receive confirmation of the approved action from the Office of Academic Affairs once it is finalized. A residential student granted an academic leave or term withdrawal must also cancel his/her housing agreement with housing services.

    2. Term Withdrawal During the Drop/Add Period: Students enrolled in classes who subsequently drop all their classes within the drop/add period will be considered to be on a term withdrawal, effective as of the date they notify the Office of Academic Affairs or the date they drop from the last class in which they are enrolled. They will receive a notation on their transcript that they dropped every class in which they were enrolled, and are subject to the tuition refund schedule policy. Students who drop all classes without notifying the Office of Academic Affairs will be deemed to have withdrawn from the academic program. Students seeking to drop all courses for the semester must notify the Office of Academic Affairs. If the separation is expected to go beyond the start of the next semester, they must apply for an academic leave pursuant to Rule 19(A).

    3. Term Withdrawal After the End of the Drop/Add Period: Students who are currently enrolled in classes and who decide to withdraw from all their classes after the last day of drop/add will be considered to be on a term withdrawal, effective as of the date they notify CUA or the date they withdraw from the last class in which they are enrolled if they do not notify CUA. They will receive a grade of “W” in every class in which they were enrolled, and are subject to the tuition refund schedule policy.

      NOTE: Students on Term Withdrawal (Official or Unofficial) or Academic Leave will be reported to the National Student Clearinghouse as "not enrolled" with an effective date as noted above. Recipients of federal student loans will enter their loan grace period, and if they have previously used up their loan grace period, will immediately enter into loan repayment. “Official” means that the student notified CUA Law; “Unofficial” means that the student did not notify CUA Law, but stopped attending all the courses in which he or she was enrolled.
  3. Permanent Withdrawal
    Students who no longer wish to continue to study at CUA Law should notify the Office of Academic Affairs. Students who make the decision to leave before finishing the semester in which they are enrolled will be withdrawn as of the date they notify the Office of Academic Affairs. For students who inform CUA Law of their intent to withdraw for a future semester, the withdrawal date will be the last day of the semester in which they are currently enrolled.

    Students who withdraw from CUA Law during a semester in which they are enrolled are subject to the tuition refund schedule policy regardless of the reasons for their withdrawal. Exceptions to the refund schedule will be considered by the Withdrawal Committee (dean of students, associate vice president of enrollment services, director of financial aid, academic representative appointed by the provost). Students who withdraw during a semester will receive a “W” grade in each class in which they were registered.

    Students who do not enroll in CUA Law for a given semester and do not inform CUA Law of their intentions to leave on a temporary or permanent basis will be administratively withdrawn from CUA Law as of the last date to enroll in any class offered for that semester,including modular( i.e. dynamically dated) classes.

    Students who have withdrawn from CUA Law will be reported to the National Student Clearinghouse as "not enrolled" with an effective date as noted above. They will enter their federal student loan grace period, and if they have previously used up their student loan grace period, they will immediately enter into loan repayment.

    If a student who has withdrawn from CUA Law subsequently decides to return, he or she must submit an application for admission to the CUA Law Office of Admissions. That application will be considered as an application to the first-year class. Credits earned prior to withdrawal from CUA Law cannot be applied to a subsequent application for admission. 

20. STUDENT CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE

CUA Law students are subject to the Standards of Student Conduct as set out in the CUA Policies and Procedures Affecting Students and to the jurisdiction of the Student Judiciary. All members of the CUA Law community are subject to the provisions of the Rules of Professional Conduct for Law Students.


21. BAR EXAMINATIONS

Students contemplating taking any bar examination should check the requirements of their jurisdiction carefully to ensure that their academic programs conform to any special rules. Some states require registration with the bar examiners while still a law student. Some states require specific coursework before a law school graduate may take the bar examination.


22. CREDIT THAT MUST BE EARNED IN REGULARLY SCHEDULED CLASSROOM SESSIONS OR DIRECT FACULTY INSTRUCTION

Students who elect to participate in approved studies or activities away from CUA Law, or in a format that does not involve attendance at regularly scheduled class sessions, may use such time spent to satisfy CUA Law’s residency and credit hour requirements, provided the conditions of this section are met.

  1. At least 65 credits of the total credited toward satisfying the “credit hour” requirements for graduation shall be in attendance in regularly scheduled classroom sessions or direct faculty instruction at CUA Law or, with the Academic Dean’s approval, at another law school.

  2. The remaining hours may be earned for other studies or activities such as field placements (pursuant to an externship) (see Rule 23), directed research (see Rule 12), participation in co-curricular activities like moot court, trial competition, and law review, courses relating to law taken outside CUA Law (see Rule 17), and courses taken in another department, school, or college affiliated with CUA Law (including those for joint degrees) (see Rule 18). Students should be aware that state bars may have a more stringent requirement for credit hours earned in classes with regularly scheduled classroom sessions. Students should thus become acquainted with and are responsible for complying with the specific requirements of any state in which they may wish to seek a license. 

23. CLINICAL COURSES

With regard to clinical courses, the CUA Law Announcements will designate how much credit is given for regularly scheduled classroom sessions and how much credit is given for other studies and activities including fieldwork. (See Rule 22 on maximum credit that may be obtained for studies and activities outside regularly scheduled classroom activities.) No more than one course designated as a clinical offering may be taken per semester without prior approval of the Director of Experiential Learning.


24. TRANSFER OF CREDIT POLICY

Under certain circumstances, CUA Law will accept academic credit earned at another ABA-accredited law school for transfer to CUA Law. Only graded courses will be considered for transfer (i.e., no pass/fail classes will be accepted for transfer). The grade received in the course must be a C+ or better to qualify for academic credit. If courses are accepted for transfer, the credit will transfer but the grade will not transfer nor will it be included in the CUA Law grade-point average. This rule summarizes the situations in which credit may transfer the criteria used to determine whether the credit will transfer, and limits on credit transfer:

  1. Students Seeking to Transfer from Another ABA- accredited Law School to CUA Law.

    CUA welcomes applications from students at other ABA- accredited law schools who seek to complete their work at CUA Law and receive the J.D. from CUA Law. The admissions decision is separate and apart from the determination as to the number of credits that will transfer and the courses for which a transfer student will receive credit toward the J.D. from CUA Law. Determinations with respect to the acceptance of transfer credits will be made by the Office of Academic Affairs on an individual basis.

    When a transfer application is accepted, the prior law school work is reviewed to determine what credit will transfer. CUA Law will accept up to 38 credits (39 credits for students beginning at CUA in the Fall 2017 semester or later; the equivalent of 45% of credits required for the J.D. degree) toward the J.D. degree if the student earned a grade of C+ (or equivalent) or above. If a transfer application is accepted:
    1. CUA Law will accept no more credits for a specific course than we offer. (e.g., if the former law school awarded six credits for Torts, we will only transfer the four credits that Torts earns here.)

    2. If the former law school awards fewer credits than CUA Law does for a specific class, then the smaller number of credits will transfer. (e.g., if the former law school awarded four credits for Contracts, we will only transfer the four credits awarded at that law school.)

    3. CUA Law will not accept credits for part one of a two-part class if the second part has not been taken and graded, unless we also offer the course as a two-part class structured in a comparable way. 

    4. Courses that are required for graduation must be taken at CUA Law unless the course offered at the former law school is substantially the same, as determined by the Office of Academic Affairs. Courses taken at other law schools may satisfy the Experiential Learning Requirement, the Upper Division Writing Requirement, the Professional Skills Requirement and the Transition to Practice Requirement only if the course meets all of CUA Law’s requirements for classes in these categories.
  2. Students Who Attend an Approved Summer Abroad Program.
    Current CUA law students may seek permission under Academic Rule 18 to attend summer law school classes at other ABA-accredited law schools or in the summer abroad programs of other ABA-accredited law schools. With that prior approval:
    1. CUA Law will accept no more than five credits in one summer from any program other than our own program (domestic or study abroad).

    2. CUA Law will not accept credits from multiple summer law school programs at other law schools.

    3. Summer courses at other law schools will not count toward CUA Law residency requirements.

    4. CUA Law will not accept credit for any courses in which a student failed to earn a grade of C+ (or the equivalent) or above.
  3. Students Who Attend Courses Outside the Law School During the Regular Law School Year.
    Current CUA Law students may seek permission under Academic Rule 17 to visit away at another ABA-accredited law school, or to attend one or more individual courses at another ABA-accredited law school, or to take classes relating to the law in other schools or departments of CUA for credit toward their J.D. degree. With that prior approval:
    1. CUA Law will accept no more than 38 credits (39 credits for students beginning at CUA in the Fall 2017 semester or later; the equivalent of 45% of credits required for the J.D. degree) from law schools other than CUA Law.

    2. Except in the case of transfer students, students are expected to meet all of CUA Law's specific course requirements at CUA Law. Students must receive specific written approval from the Academic Affairs Office for the course(s) that will meet those requirements at the visited law school.

    3. We strongly recommend that students not visit away in the final semester of law school. However, if a final semester visit away is approved, the student is on notice that CUA Law must have official notice of grades from the visited law school prior to the date on which the faculty votes on the graduating class. If the grades are not received prior to the faculty vote, the student will not graduate with the graduating class.

  4. Students in “Exchange” Programs Where a Specific Agreement has Been Made Between CUA and Another ABA-Accredited Law School.

    CUA may enter into an agreement with another law school to allow students of one law school to visit at the other law school under certain conditions. CUA currently has no exchange agreements in place.

25. COMPLETION OF COURSE EVALUATIONS

During the last two weeks of scheduled classes, on-line course evaluations shall be made available for students to complete for each of the courses in which they are enrolled and which will be completed in that semester. Each faculty member shall provide students with a minimum of fifteen minutes of regularly scheduled class time during this period in which to complete the course evaluations on-line. Presumptively, the evaluations will be scheduled during the first fifteen minutes of class and the faculty member will advise the students of the importance of completing the evaluations. 

26. ADVANCED STANDING FOR GRADUATES OF FOREIGN LAW PROGRAMS

Graduates of foreign law programs may apply for admission to the J.D. program at CUA Law with Advanced Standing. Students may receive credit for up to one-third of the required credits for the CUA Law J.D. (up to a maximum of 28 credits) from prior legal studies in a foreign country. The total amount of credit allowed will be determined on an individual basis. The ABA Standards for the Approval of Law Schools govern advanced standing credit for applicants who have graduated from foreign law programs. The coursework in the foreign law program must have been done “in residence” at the foreign law program and CUA Law must be satisfied that the quality of the educational program at the foreign law program was at least equal to that of an ABA accredited law school. Students who receive advanced standing credit must complete the remaining two-thirds of the work for the J.D. in residence at CUA Law 

27. STUDENT COMPLAINTS REGARDING COMPLIANCE WITH THE ABA STANDARDS

As an ABA- accredited law school, CUA Law is subject to the ABA Standards for Approval of Law Schools. The ABA Standards may be found at https://www.americanbar.org/groups/legal_education/resources/standards/. Any CUA Law student who wishes to assert a complaint regarding CUA Law’s compliance with the ABA’s Accreditation Standards should submit that complaint in writing to the CUA Law Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs.

  1. Reporting the Complaint
    A student asserting a complaint regarding CUA Law's compliance with the ABA’s Accreditation Standards should submit the complaint in writing. The complaint must:
    1. Contain sufficient detail to permit CUA Law to investigate the matter, including the specific Accreditation Standard(s) at issue;

    2. Be signed by the student; and

    3. Include the student’s contact information, including name, home and email addresses, and phone number.

  2. Resolving the Complaint
    When a formal written complaint has been made in accordance with Rule 27(A), the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs will:
    1. Acknowledge receipt of the complaint within five (5) business days of receipt;

    2. Investigate the complaint and attempt to resolve it within thirty (30) business days. Within the thirty (30) day period the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs will either meet with the complaining student, or respond to the substance of the complaint in writing. During the meeting, or in the written response, the student shall either receive a substantive response to the complaint or information about what steps are being taken by the law school to address or further investigate the complaint. If further investigation is needed, the student shall be provided with information about what steps are being taken by CUA Law to obtain the information and the anticipated timeframe for additional response.

    3. If, due to extraordinary circumstances, CUA Law is unable to meet these timeframes, the Dean may authorize an extension of time and the student will be notified of the extension and the reason for the extension.

  3. Appeals
    Within ten (10) business days of written notice from the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs regarding final resolution of the complaint, the student may appeal the decision in writing to the Dean.. If such appeal is filed, the Dean shall respond, with a written decision, within thirty (30) business days. The decision of the Dean shall be final.

  4. Written Record of Complaints
    The Office of Academic Affairs shall maintain a complete written record of each complaint and how it was investigated and resolved.

28. REQUIRED PARTICIPATION IN ACADEMIC EXCELLENCE PROGRAM

  1. The following students are required to participate in the Academic Excellence Program: (1) any first-year student: whose average for the fall semester falls within the lowest 30 percent of the class; who received the grade of C-, D, or F in any course during the first year; or who is referred by the Office of Academic Affairs; and (2) upper division students with a cumulative grade point average after any semester below 3.0.

  2. Each student required to participate in the Academic Excellence Program must develop and implement a written individual academic plan approved by the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs. No student required by this rule to participate in the Academic Excellence Program will be permitted to register for courses until the student provides the Office of Academic Affairs with a statement, signed by the Assistant Dean for Student Affairs, confirming that the requirements of this rule have been satisfied. For first-year students, the rule does not bar registration for first-year spring semester courses.

  3. The Dean, the Academic Dean, or their designees have the authority to require participation by any student in the Academic Excellence Program on an individual basis.

 

LL.M. PROGRAM

The academic rules at the date of publication are listed below. From time to time the faculty may promulgate new rules or alter the present rules. Students are considered to be on notice of changes or additions to these rules when they are approved by the faculty and posted in the Announcements as well as on the Web site of The Catholic University of America Columbus School of Law. To the extent permitted, in extraordinary cases, exceptions to these rules may be granted by the academic dean(s) for good cause shown.

1. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS

To be eligible for the degree of Legum Magister (LL.M.), with a concentration in Communications Law, Securities Law, or Comparative and International Law, a student must complete the following requirements during a course of study not to exceed 36 months after the student has commenced LL.M. study:

  1. Earn at least 24 semester hours of credit while maintaining a cumulative average of 2.15; 

  2. Earn at least 16 of the required credits in courses directly related to the concentration area; the remaining credits may be earned by taking general electives.

  3. Required Courses
    1. LL.M. students with a U.S. or Canadian first degree are required to take at least one course with a writing component as part of their coursework.

    2. LL.M. students whose first degree in law is not from a U.S. or Canadian school (“International students”) must take a legal research and writing course that will familiarize them with the American legal system and ensure proficiency in American legal analysis and writing.

    3. International students may be required to take a first-year common law course and they are encouraged to select at least one additional upper-division course that requires completion of a paper or other written work product.

    4. Students must complete a written academic plan, under the supervision of the faculty adviser, prior to commencing study. Note: J.D. students will have priority for limited enrollment courses. To be eligible for the nonresident Master of Laws (LL.M.) Program with Jagiellonian University, students must earn 22 credit hours. The program comprises three parts:
      • At least six credits earned in three courses taken within the International Business and Trade Law Program offered by CUA in Cracow in mid-June through the end of July in the first summer in which students are enrolled in the program. LL.M. students study with American law students and students from several law schools in Poland.

      • At least nine credits earned in the School of American Law held at Jagiellonian University in Cracow during the academic year between October and May.

      • Six to seven credits earned during a two-month stay in Washington, D.C., from mid-May through the end of July during the second summer that students are enrolled in the program. Students enroll in one three- or four-credit classroom substantive law course. In addition, students receive one credit for a course in advanced legal research and writing, which assists them with the preparation of a required directed research paper, for which the student receives an additional two credits.

2. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, AND WITHDRAWAL

  1. Students must complete registration at the beginning of each semester.

  2. Students may be admitted as full-time or part-time students. Full-time students must enroll for a minimum of 12 hours per semester and should complete the program in one academic year. Full-time students may enroll for a maximum of 16 credits per semester. Part-time students must enroll for a minimum of six credits per semester and should complete the program in two academic years. Part-time students may enroll for a maximum of 11 credits per semester. Students who are working more than 20 hours per week should enroll in the part-time program. LL.M. students may not exceed the maximum period of candidacy described in Rule I.

  3. International students on student visas are required to enroll as full-time students. A student’s visa cannot be extended to provide additional time for the student to complete a paper or coursework except for compelling academic or medical reasons consistent with U.S. visa regulations. Other students with a first degree from an institution outside of the U.S. may enroll as part-time students if they are U.S. citizens or permanent residents of the U.S., or if they are on a visa permitting part-time study.

  4. Late registration is permitted only for good cause. Students who register after the deadline may incur a late registration fee. No course may be added after the add/drop deadline.

  5. Permission to change the chosen concentration or to withdraw from any course must be approved by the faculty adviser and the academic dean.

  6. Duplication of Courses. Students in the LL.M. program may not enroll in the same or a substantially similar course for which they have previously received academic credit without written authorization from the faculty adviser and the academic dean. If such permission is granted, the faculty adviser and the academic dean must confirm, in writing, whether the course in question will count toward the credits required for the degree and/or concentration.

  7. Withdrawal from a course after the Add/Drop deadline requires the permission of the Office of Academic Affairs. In a clinical course, permission will be granted only after consultation by the Office of Academic Affairs with the course instructor to ensure that client and clinic interests are protected in the event of withdrawal

  8. Transfers between divisions (full-time/part-time) are permitted only for good cause and with written application to the academic dean. Normally a student will be permitted to transfer only once during his or her LL.M. study.

  9. Withdrawal for failure to register.
    A student who fails either to register or to obtain an approved leave of absence, regardless of the reason for that failure, will be withdrawn from the LL.M. program. This action will be noted on the student’s transcript. Such a student may not register for a subsequent semester without the approval of the academic dean. Permission to re-enroll will not be granted unless the degree can be completed within 36 months of the original date of matriculation.

3. GRADING

  1. Grading Policy for LL.M Students
    1. Grades for all LL.M. students will be based on the following letter-grade scale:
      A+ 
      A, A- 
      B+, B, B- 
      C+, C 
      C-, D 
      F          Failing
      F*        Administrative Failure
      The grade of F* should be awarded to students who did not officially withdraw from the course, but who failed to attend and participate in course activities through the end of the period.

    2. Letter-based grades will be converted to numerical values for the purposes of calculation of grade point average as follows: A+ = 4.33; A = 4.00; A- = 3.67; B+ = 3.33; B = 3.00; B- = 2.67;
      C+ = 2.33; C = 2.00; C- = 1.67; D = 1.00; F = 0; F*=0.

    3. No mandatory means or medians shall apply to grades awarded to LL.M. students. The grade ranges set out for J.D. students may be used to guide the assignment of grades for LL.M. students, however, such grades ranges are merely advisory.

    4. The performance of LL.M. students shall be evaluated independently from the evaluation of J.D. students. LL.M. students shall not be included when determining the means, medians, or ranking for J.D. students. Every effort will be made to maintain an LL.M. student’s anonymity during the grading process; however anonymity cannot be guaranteed when enrollment numbers of LL.M. students in a course make such anonymity infeasible.

  2. Procedure for Appealing Failing Grade.
    Find the procedure at http://policies.cua.edu/academicundergrad/appealfailinggrades.cfm. University procedure does not allow a passing grade to be appealed.

4. GOOD STANDING, PROBATION, EXCLUSION, AND READMISSION

  1. Good Standing:
    LLM students must maintain a cumulative average of 2.15.

  2. Academic Probation
    An LL.M. student whose cumulative average falls below 2.15, but not below 1.82 after the first semester in a full-time program or first or second semester in a part-time program will be placed on academic probation.

  3. Academic Exclusion
    A student will be academically excluded from the LL.M. degree program under any one of the following circumstances:
    1. The LL.M. student has been placed on academic probation and fails to achieve a cumulative grade point average of 2.15 or higher in the subsequent semester.

    2. The LL.M. student’s cumulative grade point average falls below 1.82 in any semester.

    3. Upon completion of all degree requirements the LL.M. student has not achieved a cumulative grade point average of 2.15 or higher.

  4. Readmission Following Exclusion
    1. Absent extraordinary circumstances, students excluded for academic deficiency will not be readmitted to the law school.

    2. An excluded student may be considered for readmission only once.

    3. As a rule, the faculty excludes the votes of student representatives to the faculty and to the Student Affairs Committee on matters pertaining to a student’s petition for readmission. However, upon written request of the student seeking readmission, student representatives will be permitted to vote on the petition.

    4. If the Student Affairs Committee votes to readmit an LL.M. student following exclusion, the committee, in conjunction with the LL.M. student’s faculty adviser, must specify requirements for the student’s continued study, including retaking any specific courses or revising the academic plan.

    5. An LL.M. student readmitted following academic exclusion must achieve a semester average of 2.15 in the following semester and a cumulative average of 2.15 upon completion of all degree requirements. If the student does not achieve a semester average of 2.15 in the following semester the student will be excluded from the academic program without opportunity for academic probation or readmission.

5. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS

  1. Class Attendance
    Regular and punctual attendance at class meetings or equivalent course exercises is a condition of receiving credit in all courses. If a student misses more than two hours of coursework for each credit hour assigned to the course, the instructor may direct the dean’s office to exclude the student from the course. Instructors in limited-enrollment courses (seminars, clinics, simulations, etc.) may set stricter attendance rules for those courses, including required attendance at the first or other specified class meetings; if a student fails to meet these requirements, the instructor may direct the dean’s office to exclude the student from the course. Each instructor is responsible for announcing and enforcing the specific attendance policy for that course. Chronic, repeated, or general lack of attendance in violation of these rules shall be grounds for dismissal from the school upon a vote of the faculty. (See Rule 3.1. Grades.)

  2. Course Requirements
    Individual instructors are free to determine their own teaching method and materials and whether their course grade will be based on examination, a research paper, or a combination of the two, or pursuant to Rule 6. Individual instructors also may designate prerequisites for their courses.

6. COMPONENTS OF GRADE

  1. Except as provided below in sections 2–4, each student’s grade shall be based solely on an anonymous written examination administered at the end of the course pursuant to Rule 7.

  2. Courses Exempt by Category
    Clinical courses, externship courses, simulated lawyering skills courses, seminars, and all courses that satisfy a writing requirement are not governed by paragraph 1. Instructors in those courses may base their grades on criteria established by the individual instructors. The criteria must be set forth in writing and distributed to the students in the course at or before the first class meeting.

  3. Instructor Option Regarding Student Work Product
    1. In any course other than those listed in paragraph 2, at the instructor’s option up to 30 percent of the final grade may be based on student work product other than the final examination

    2. The student work product that comprises the nonexamination portion of the final grade may consist of answers to written problems; research or drafting assignments; periodic quizzes; a mid-semester test; classroom demonstrations, presentations or reports; individual or team exercises such as simulations of interviews, depositions, arguments, hearings, negotiations, or the like; or any other activity during the semester that can be objectively assessed and compared from one student to another.

    3. Any instructor intending to base a portion of the grade on student work product other than a final examination must make that election, set forth the criteria for the grade in writing, and distribute it to the students in the course at or before the first class meeting. No nonexamination grading component criteria may be added by the instructor after the initial distribution of the criteria to the students. Previously announced nonexamination grading criteria may be eliminated or changed by the instructor so long as the change is made in writing and distributed to the students before the last day of classes.

    4. When the final grades are submitted to the dean’s office, the instructor must submit a written worksheet or compilation that identifies the nonexamination component(s) for each student.

    5. The instructor should grade the nonexamination components on an anonymous basis, whenever feasible, especially in first year courses.

  4. Instructor Option Regarding Classroom Performance
    At the instructor’s option, assessment of classroom performance, which includes participation in class discussions and in-class exercises other than those listed in Paragraph 3, may raise or lower a student’s grade for the course by a single letter-grade step. A single letter-grade step change is a change from an A to an A+ or A-, from a B+ to an A- or B, etc. No grade of D or F may, however, be created or altered though an addition of or subtraction of a step as provided in this section

7. EXAMINATIONS

Anonymous written examinations are conducted in all courses at the end of each semester, except as provided in Rule 6.

  1. Time and Place for Examinations
    Examinations will be administered, according to a posted schedule, in a special period following the end of all regular class meetings. All exams must be taken during that period unless incompletes are entered for good cause. The posted schedule designates specific starting times for exams and will be issued in draft form no later than the beginning of the semester. Examinations that deviate from the time limits set in paragraph 3 below must be identified at that time. Exam questions are distributed by proctors. Students will be assigned to specific rooms, must take every other (alternate) seat in the classroom assigned, and must write the examination in that room.

  2. Proctors
    Faculty members or others hired for the purpose will be assigned as proctors for each room in which examinations are being taken. Proctors will distribute and collect exams in the assigned room and will remain in the room during the exam.

  3. Time Limits
    Examinations may be one to four hours’ duration, at the instructor’s discretion. Except in required courses, if an examination will exceed the four-hour limit, students must be advised of that fact no later than the inception of registration. The amount of time allowed will be stated on the examination itself, and this time is absolute. At the stated expiration time, all students must turn in their exams promptly to the proctor. The proctor is instructed to notify the Office of the Dean regarding the examination papers of students who continue to write past the time limit. Any student who is unavoidably late for the beginning of an examination may see the dean or the dean's designee, who may extend the deadline for that student for sufficient reason. Otherwise, a late-arriving student is limited to the original deadline set for the exam. Similarly, students who become ill during an exam should report the illness to the proctor. The proctor will collect that student’s examination materials and will report the illness to the dean, who may extend the deadline or reschedule the exam.

  4. Rescheduling of Examinations
    1. Prior to a scheduled examination, a student may request that the examination be rescheduled because of personal or family illness, an emergency, or an exam conflict. In all such instances, the student shall submit to the Office of Academic Affairs adequate and appropriate verification of the facts upon which any such request for rescheduling is based. No examination will be rescheduled to a time prior to the regularly scheduled time for the examination without the express approval of the Academic Dean and the instructor of the relevant course, and only in extraordinary circumstances.

    2. If a student has two exams in less than 24 hours (the 24-hour period is computed from the starting time for each exam), one exam will be rescheduled so that the exams will be at least 24 hours apart.

    3. Reasons of personal convenience do not warrant rescheduling examinations.

    4. Matters relating to employment do not generally warrant rescheduling of examinations. Students who are required by their employers to travel outside of the area must submit documentation of the travel requirement to the Office of Academic Affairs Office to request rescheduling.

    5. Take-home exams and paper due dates are excluded from rescheduling considerations.

  5. Failure to Appear for Scheduled Examination
    Any student who, without approved rescheduling, fails to appear for an examination at the time scheduled will receive an F for that exam.

  6. General Examination Format
    Examinations in the law school will consist of a series of questions or problems dealing with the subject matter of the course. In preparing such examinations, instructors may designate the weight- or time allocation for each question or problem.

  7. Take-Home Examinations
    An instructor may give a take-home examination in any course. Take-home exams should be distributed and returned at fixed times, and the time allotted should be neither so short nor so long as to interfere with other examinations being administered. Policies stated above with respect to deadlines, and failure to appear apply to take-home exams as well as to regular exams. In giving take-home exams, instructors should appreciate the limited resources of the law library, should avoid using the take-home format as a substitute for a term research paper, and should presume that the exam can be answered from required course materials. Take-home exams should be in the same format as regular exams and should be returnable within a maximum of 48 hours after distribution. The instructor should specify appropriate amounts of time for preparing and writing exam answers and should set maximum page or word limits for the exam. 

  8. Materials in Examination Rooms
    Instructors should announce in class, advise the proctor, and indicate on the examination questions what (if any) materials students may bring into the examination room. Any other notes, books, or materials must be left outside the room during the exam.

  9. Anonymity of Examinations
    Examinations are taken and graded anonymously. Students are responsible for obtaining exam numbers according to procedures set by the dean’s office. Students must identify their exams only with their exam number. To preserve grading anonymity, students are prohibited from contacting current semester faculty between the date that the exam is administered and the date that the grades are posted in Cardinal Station.

  10. Review of Exams B- or Below
    Any student who receives a grade of B- or below in any course is strongly encouraged to meet with the instructor to review and discuss their examination and the model answer prepared by the instructor.

8. COMPLETION OF COURSES: INCOMPLETES

  1. Students in all courses are expected to complete their coursework within the semester in which the course is offered.
    In examination courses this means taking the exam at the time scheduled. In courses in which research papers comprise all or part of the coursework, such papers must be submitted at the times fixed by the instructor but in no event later than the last day of scheduled exams for the semester. 

  2. When a student is unable, because of illness or other hardship, to complete coursework (other than the examination) on the due date(s), the student should advise the instructor promptly.
    The instructor may then direct the entry of a grade of incomplete in the course. Incomplete grades must be made up at a time determined by the instructor and, in any event, no later than the middle of the following semester. Incomplete grades will be used rarely and only in extraordinary cases and will not be used when the student simply has failed to complete course work. No incomplete may be entered in the summer session. Failure to complete coursework on the due date or, in the case of an incomplete, by the middle of the following semester, will result in the entry of an F.

9. AVAILABILITY OF GRADES

  1. Availability of Grades
    Final coursework grades are available through Cardinal Students.

  2. Grade changes in any course are considered final once submitted to the Office of the Dean.
    The Office of the Dean may change an otherwise final grade only on written certification from the faculty member either (1) that the final grade reflects an incorrect mathematical computation or recordation or (2) that, in determining the particular exam or paper grade, the faculty member evaluated the student’s work differently from that of all others in the course. (The latter criterion does not contemplate changes in the classroom performance [Rule 6.4] portion of any final grade). No final grade will be changed merely to restore a student to good standing, to assure academic credit for the course, at this institution or any other; nor will a grade be changed because, on review, the faculty member is persuaded the student had a better (or worse) grasp of the course material than the exam or paper evidenced on its face. In no event may any final grade be changed unless the faculty member’s written certification reaches the Office of the Dean by the middle of the semester following that for which the grade was entered.

  3. Submission of grades by faculty members.
    Faculty members are expected to submit grades as soon as possible. Absent an extension from the dean, grades are to be submitted no later than four weeks from the conclusion of the examination period. In order to award honors at graduation, grades of graduating students in their last semester must be submitted at a time to be designated by the dean.

10. WRITING REQUIREMENT

Writing requirements for LL.M. degree candidates are outlined in Rule 1. 3. b and c.


11. STUDENT RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTS

Each student’s file, containing material from application through graduation, is maintained in the law school. Information in the file is available to the student upon written request, consistent with the requirements imposed on the law school by the University and by the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (Buckley Amendment). The student record policy is online at http://policies.cua.edu/StudentLife/studentrecords.cfm. Student education records will not be disclosed without written permission of the student unless the release fits one of the exceptions in the CUA Student Records Policy found at http://policies.cua.edu/studentlife/studentrecordsfull.cfm. Permanent and official transcripts of law school work are maintained in the university enrollment services office in Father O'Connell Hall. All requests for transcripts should be made to that office or on line through Cardinal Station.


12. COURSES OUTSIDE THE LAW SCHOOL

LL.M. students are expected to complete all degree requirements at this University. In appropriate circumstances, however, students may be permitted to take one graduate level course (not to exceed four credits) relating to the academic program at another university. Similarly, within the limits of maximum course load, LL.M. students may request permission to take graduate level courses relating to the academic program in other schools or departments within The Catholic University of America for credit toward their LL.M. degree. Generally students will not be permitted to register for more than two courses in other CUA schools or departments. Courses taken outside of the law school (whether at CUA or at another university) must be included in the student’s written academic plan and approved by the faculty adviser. Credit in such courses will be entered on the student’s record but grades in these courses will not be computed into his or her academic average.


13. ACCOMMODATION UNDER ADA

Students who seek accommodations under the Americans with Disabilities Act should contact the Office of Disability Support Services (DSS) at cua-disabilityservices@cua.edu, which will coordinate with the Office of the Academic Dean.


14. INTERRUPTION OF STUDIES

A student in good standing who must interrupt his/her studies for adequate reason, such as prolonged ill health or military service, may be granted an academic leave for a stated period, usually not to exceed one year. The student should apply in writing to the Office of the Academic Dean of the law school, stating the specific reasons for requiring the leave. The period of academic leave is counted as part of the time allowed for the completion of degree requirements. Any incomplete (I) grades that are outstanding must be changed in accordance with the policy on incomplete grades by the date published in the Academic Calendar, whether a student is registered for the current semester or not. If the academic leave extends beyond the period approved by the academic dean, the student will be considered to have withdrawn from the University, and must apply for readmission to be reinstated and satisfy current degree requirements.

Students may apply for an academic leave for a semester if they are not enrolled in courses for that semester up until administrative withdrawals are processed for that term (usually the last date to enroll in any class offered for that semester [including modular, i.e. dynamically dated, classes]).

Students who wish to temporarily leave the University during a semester in which they are enrolled in classes will receive a term withdrawal for that term. An additional request will need to be made if the student wishes to extend the leave into a future semester. This extension will be considered an academic leave subject to the terms stated above. The Office of the Academic Dean notifies the offices of the law school registrar and the law school financial aid office of this action. The student will receive confirmation of the approved action from the Office of the Academic Dean once finalized. A residential student granted an academic leave or term withdrawal must also cancel his/her housing agreement with housing services.

  1. Academic Leave
    An academic leave, if granted, will be effective as of the last day of the semester in which they were most recently enrolled.

    Students on academic leave are expected to return to the University when their stated duration of leave has expired. Students who do not return from an academic leave when scheduled will be subject to Administrative Withdrawal during the semester for which they failed to return.

  2. Term Withdrawal
    1. During Drop/Add Period — Students enrolled in classes who subsequently drop all their classes within the drop/add period will be considered to be on a term withdrawal, effective as of the date they notify the Office of the Academic Dean or the date they drop from the last class in which they are enrolled if they do not notify the University. They will receive a notation on their transcript that they dropped every class in which they were enrolled, and are subject to the tuition refund schedule policy.

      Students who drop all classes without notifying the Office of the Academic Dean will be deemed to have withdrawn from the academic program. Students seeking to drop all courses for the semester must notify the Office of the Academic Dean. If the separation is expected to go beyond the start of the next semester, they must apply for an academic leave (see above).

    2. After End of Drop/Add Period — Students who are currently enrolled in classes and who decide to withdraw from all their classes after the last day of drop/add will be considered to be on a term withdrawal, effective as of the date they notify the University or the date they withdraw from the last class in which they are enrolled if they do not notify the university. They will receive a grade of “W” in every class in which they were enrolled, and are subject to the tuition refund schedule policy.

      NOTE: Students on Term Withdrawal (Official or Unofficial) or Academic Leave will be reported to the National Student Clearinghouse as "not enrolled" with an effective date as noted above. Recipients of federal student loans will enter their loan grace period, and if they have previously used up their loan grace period, will immediately enter into loan repayment. “Official” means that the student notified the university; “Unofficial” means that the student did not notify the University, but stopped attending all the courses in which they were enrolled.

  3. Permanent Withdrawal
    Law students who no longer wish to continue to study at the law school should notify the Office of the Academic Dean of the law school. Students who make the decision to leave before finishing the semester in which they are enrolled will be withdrawn as of the date they notify the administration. For those students who inform the law school of their intent to withdraw for a future semester, the withdrawal date will be the last day of the semester in which they are currently enrolled.

    Students who withdraw from the University during a semester in which they are enrolled are subject to the tuition refund schedule policy regardless of the reasons for their withdrawal. Exceptions to the refund schedule will be considered by the Withdrawal Committee (dean of students, associate vice president of enrollment services, director of financial aid, academic representative appointed by the provost). Students who withdraw during a semester will receive a “W” grade in each class in which they were registered.

    Students who do not enroll in the University for a given semester and do not inform the University of their intentions to leave on a temporary or permanent basis will be administratively withdrawn from the University as of the last date to enroll in any class offered for that semester (including modular, i.e., dynamically dated, classes).

    Students who have withdrawn from the University will be reported to the National Student Clearinghouse as "not enrolled" with an effective date as noted above. They will enter their federal student loan grace period, and if they have previously used up their student loan grace period, they will immediately enter into loan repayment.

    If a student who has withdrawn from the law school subsequently decides to return to the law school, he/she must submit an application for admission to the law school Office of Admissions. That application will be considered as an application to the first year class. Credits earned prior to withdrawal from the law school cannot be applied to a subsequent application for admission.

^top

15. AUDITS

Within the limits of maximum and minimum course load, students may audit courses in the law school or in the University. Such audited courses are entered on the student’s record but do not count toward either the academic credit or residency requirements. Auditors are not excused from class attendance requirements.


16. STUDENT CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE

Students in the law school are subject to the standards of student conduct as set out in the University Policies and Procedures Affecting Students and to the jurisdiction of the Student Judiciary. All members of the law school community are subject to the provisions of the Rules of Professional Conduct for Law Students.


17. BAR EXAMINATIONS

The LL.M program is not designed to prepare students for a U. S. bar exam. Accordingly, the law school does not guarantee enrollment in any course, graduate or J.D., that bar authorities may require as a condition of eligibility to sit for a bar examination. Students contemplating taking any bar examination should check the requirements carefully to ensure that their academic programs conform to any special rules. Some states require registration with the bar examiners while still a law student. Some states require specific coursework before a law graduate may take the bar examination


18: TRANSFER OF CREDIT

J.D. graduates of the Columbus School of Law who are accepted into the CUA LL.M. program may count up to five credits earned in excess of the 84-credit J.D. graduation requirement toward the LL.M. degree, as long as the date of the J.D. is no more than three years prior to the beginning of the LL.M. program. Transfer of credit from other J.D. programs will not be permitted.

Students earning academic credit in the LL.M. program will not be permitted to apply that academic credit toward the requirements of a J.D. degree at The Catholic University of America.


19. STUDENT COMPLAINTS REGARDING COMPLIANCE WITH THE ABA STANDARDS

As an American Bar Association (ABA) accredited law school, the Columbus School of Law is subject to the ABA Standards for Approval of Law Schools. The ABA Standards may be found at https://www.americanbar.org/groups/legal_education/resources/standards/. Any student at the law school who wishes to assert a complaint regarding the law school’s compliance with the ABA’s Accreditation Standards should submit that complaint in writing to the Law School Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs.

  1. Reporting the Complaint
    A student asserting a complaint regarding the law school’s compliance with the ABA’s Accreditation Standards should submit the complaint in writing, with sufficient detail to permit the law school to investigate the matter, including the specific Accreditation Standard(s) at issue. The complaint must be signed by the student. The complaint must also include the student’s contact information, including name, home and email addresses, and phone number.

  2. Resolving the Complaint
    When a formal written complaint has been made in accordance with paragraph 1, the assistant dean for academic affairs will:
    1. Acknowledge receipt of the complaint within five (5) business days of receipt,

    2. Investigate the complaint and attempt to resolve it within thirty (30) business days. Within the thirty (30) day period the assistant dean or associate dean will either meet with the complaining student, or respond to the substance of the complaint in writing. During the meeting, or in the written response, the student shall either receive a substantive response to the complaint, or information about what steps are being taken by the law school to address or further investigate the complaint. If further investigation is needed, the student shall be provided with information about what steps are being taken by the law school to obtain the information and the anticipated timeframe for additional response.

    3. If, due to extraordinary circumstances, the law school is unable to meet these timeframes, the dean may authorize an extension of time and the student will be notified of the extension and the reason for the extension.

  3. Appeals
    Within ten (10) business days of written notice from the assistant dean for academic affairs regarding final resolution of the complaint, the student may appeal the decision in writing to the dean of the law school. If such appeal is filed, the dean shall respond, with a written decision, within thirty (30) business days. The decision of the dean shall be final.

  4. Written Record of Complaints
    The Office of the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs in the law school shall maintain a complete written record of each complaint and how it was investigated and resolved.

^top

M.L.S. PROGRAM

The academic rules at the date of publication are listed below. From time to time, the faculty may promulgate new rules or alter the present rules. Students are considered to be on notice of changes or additions to these rules when they are approved by the faculty and posted on the Web site of The Catholic University of America Columbus School of Law. To the extent permitted, in extraordinary cases, exceptions to these rules may be granted by the academic dean(s) for good cause shown.


1. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS


To be eligible for the degree of Masters of Legal Studies (M.L.S.), a student must complete the following requirements during a course of study not to exceed 48 months after the student has commenced M.L.S. study:

  1. Earn a minimum of 26 semester hours of credit while receiving a grade of P or maintaining a cumulative average of 2.15.

  2. Satisfactorily complete the following required courses:
    1. Introduction to American Law & Legal Methods

    2. Master of Legal Studies Final Project

    3. Any other course designated “required” for the student’s particular M.L.S. Concentration

2. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, WITHDRAWAL, AND TRANSFER CREDITS

  1. Students must complete registration at the beginning of each semester.
    Generally, students may register for non-clinical courses and seminars offered by the law school. The Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program shall approve each student’s proposed schedule before a student may register. Students may not register for a legal externship course without permission of the Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program and Director of Experiential Curriculum. Approval by the Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program does not guarantee that M.L.S. students will secure a seat in limited enrollment classes, classes with prerequisites or co-requisites, or classes requiring prior approval by other faculty or directors.

  2. Admission Status of Students
    1. Students are admitted as part-time students.
      All students, other than international students, are admitted as part-time students. Part-time students may not enroll for fewer than six credit hours per semester without permission of the Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program. Part-time students may enroll for a maximum of 11 credits per semester. Students may not exceed the maximum period of candidacy described in Rule 1.

    2. International students
      International students are students who are not U.S. citizens or permanent residents of the United States.

      International students are admitted as full-time students, unless they are on a visa permitting part-time study. A full-time international student may not enroll for more than 16 nor fewer than 12 credit hours per semester. An international student’s visa cannot be extended to provide additional time for the student to complete a paper or coursework except for compelling academic or medical reasons consistent with U.S. visa regulations. International students may not exceed the maximum period of candidacy described in Rule 1.

  3. Late registration is permitted only for good cause. Students who register after the deadline may incur a late registration fee. No course may be added after the add/drop deadline.

  4. Permission to change the chosen concentration or to withdraw from any course must be approved by the Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program.

  5. Withdrawal from a course after the Add/Drop deadline requires the permission of the Office of Academic Affairs.  In a clinical course, permission will be granted only after consultation by the Office of Academic Affairs with the course instructor to ensure that client and clinic interests are protected in the event of withdrawal.

  6. Withdrawal for failure to register.
    A student who fails either to register or to obtain an approved leave of absence, regardless of the reason for that failure, will be withdrawn from the M.L.S. program. This action will be noted on the student’s transcript. Such a student may not register for a subsequent semester without the approval of the academic dean(s). Permission to re-enroll will not be granted unless the degree can be completed within 48 months of the original date of matriculation.

  7. Courses Outside the Law School
    M.L.S. students are expected to complete all degree requirements at CUA Law. In appropriate circumstances, however, students may be permitted to take one graduate level course (not to exceed four credits) relating to the academic program at another university. Similarly, M.L.S. students may request permission to take graduate level courses relating to the academic program in other schools or departments within CUA for credit toward their M.L.S. degree. Generally students will not be permitted to register for more than two courses (not to exceed 6 credits) in other CUA schools or departments. Courses taken outside of the law school (whether at CUA or at another university) must be approved by the Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program. Credit in such courses will be entered on the student’s record but grades in these courses will not be computed into his or her academic average.

  8. Transfer Credit
    Credits earned as an M.L.S. candidate cannot be applied to earning a J.D. degree. Students in the M.L.S. Program interested in enrolling in the J.D. Program must apply through the regular admissions process for CUA Law.

    Except with permission of the academic dean(s), credits earned as a J.D. candidate at CUA Law or another law school cannot be applied to earning an M.L.S. degree.

3. GRADING

  1. Grading Policy for M.L.S. Students
    1. Students will be graded on a letter scale unless they choose to be graded on a Pass/No Pass basis for a particular course. Except with permission of the academic dean(s) and concurrence of the course instructor, students must decide to change from a letter grade to Pass/No Pass in a particular course before the last day of the drop/add period for that semester. Students may take a maximum of 12 credit hours on a Pass/No Pass basis. 

    2. For M.L.S. students graded on a letter-grade scale, the scale will be as follows:
      A+ 
      A, A- 
      B+, B, B- 
      C+, C 
      C-, D 
      F        Failing 
      F*      Administrative Failure
      1. The grade of F* should be awarded to students who did not officially withdraw from the course, but who failed to attend and participate in course activities through the end of the period.

      2. Letter-based grades will be converted to numerical values for the purposes of calculation of grade point average as follows: A+ = 4.33; A = 4.00; A- = 3.67; B+ = 3.33; B = 3.00; B- = 2.67; C+ = 2.33; C = 2.00; C- = 1.67; D = 1.00; F = 0; F*=0.

      3. No mandatory means or medians shall apply to grades awarded to M.L.S. students.

    3. The performance of M.L.S. students shall be evaluated independently from the evaluation of J.D. students. M.L.S. students shall not be included when determining the means, medians, or ranking for J.D. students. When assigning M.L.S. grades, faculty should not require M.L.S. students to achieve the same performance as J.D. students earning the same grade. M.L.S. students should be graded with the recognition that they have not completed the first year of law school.

    4. Because M.L.S. students are evaluated independently from J.D. students (III.1.d), grade rosters will identify the M.L.S. students as M.L.S. students. Therefore, in classes where there is only one M.L.S. student, that student will not be anonymous to the faculty member evaluating the M.L.S. student. With that exception, every effort will be made to protect the anonymity of M.L.S. students during the grading process.

  2. Procedure for Appealing Failing Grade.
    Find the procedure at http://policies.cua.edu/academicundergrad/appealfailinggrades.cfm. University procedure does not allow a passing grade to be appealed.

4. GOOD STANDING, PROBATION, EXCLUSION, AND READMISSION

  1. Good Standing
    An M.L.S. student must have a cumulative average of 2.15 and not have earned a grade of “No Pass” in the previous semester.

  2. Academic Probation
    An M.L.S. student who receives a grade of No Pass in one or more courses or whose cumulative average falls below 2.15, but not below 1.82, after the first semester in a full-time program or first or second semester in a part-time program will be placed on academic probation.

  3. Academic Exclusion
    A student will be academically excluded from the M.L.S. degree program under any one of the following circumstances:
    1. The M.L.S. student has been placed on academic probation and fails to achieve a P grade in all courses in the subsequent semester or a cumulative grade point average of 2.15 or higher in the subsequent semester.

    2. The M.L.S. student receives a grade of No Pass in two or more courses in any semester or the student’s cumulative grade point average falls below 1.82 in any semester.

    3. Upon completion of all degree requirements, the M.L.S. student has received a grade of NP in two or more courses or has not achieved a cumulative grade point average of 2.15 or higher.

  4. Readmission Following Exclusion
    1. Absent extraordinary circumstances, students excluded for academic deficiency pursuant to Rule IV.3 will not be readmitted to the law school.

    2. An excluded student may be considered for readmission only once.

    3. As a rule, the faculty excludes the votes of student representatives to the faculty on matters pertaining to a student’s petition for readmission. However, upon written request of the student seeking readmission, student representatives will be permitted to vote on the petition.

    4. If the Academic Policy Committee votes to readmit an M.L.S. student following exclusion, the committee, in conjunction with the Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program, must specify requirements for the student’s continued study, including retaking any specific courses or revising the academic plan.

    5. An M.L.S. student readmitted following academic exclusion must receive a grade of P in all courses or achieve a semester average of 2.15 in the following semester and a cumulative average of 2.15 upon completion of all degree requirements. If the student does not receive a grade of P in all courses or achieve a semester average of 2.15 in the following semester, the student will be excluded from the academic program without opportunity for academic probation or readmission.

 5. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS

  1. Grades
    1. Class Attendance
      Regular and punctual attendance at class meetings or equivalent course exercises is a condition of receiving credit in all courses. If a student misses more than two hours of coursework for each credit hour assigned to the course, the instructor may direct the dean’s office to exclude the student from the course. Instructors in limited-enrollment courses (seminars, clinics, simulations, etc.) may set stricter attendance rules for those courses, including required attendance at the first or other specified class meetings; if a student fails to meet these requirements, the instructor may direct the dean’s office to exclude the student from the course. Each instructor is responsible for announcing and enforcing the specific attendance policy for that course. Chronic, repeated, or general lack of attendance in violation of these rules shall be grounds for dismissal from the school upon a vote of the faculty. 

    2. Course Requirements
      Individual instructors are free to determine their own teaching method and materials and whether their course grade will be based on examination, a research paper, or a combination of the two, or pursuant to Rule VI. Individual instructors also may designate prerequisites and/or co-requisites for their courses.

6. COMPONENTS OF GRADE

  1. Except as provided below in sections 2–4, each student’s grade shall be based solely on a written examination administered at the end of the course pursuant to Rule 7.

  2. Courses Exempt by Category
    Externship courses, simulated lawyering skills courses, seminars, and all courses that satisfy a writing requirement are not governed by paragraph 1. Instructors in those courses may base their grades on criteria established by the individual instructors. The criteria must be set forth in writing and distributed to the students in the course at or before the first class meeting. Students may not register for a legal externship course without permission of the Director(s) of the M.L.S. Program, the Director of the Experiential Curriculum, and the instructor.

  3. Instructor Option re Student Work Product
    1. In any course other than those listed in paragraph 2, at the instructor’s option, up to 30 percent of the final grade may be based on student work product other than the final examination.

    2. The student work product that comprises the non-examination portion of the final grade may consist of answers to written problems; research or drafting assignments; periodic quizzes; a mid-semester test; classroom demonstrations, presentations or reports; individual or team exercises such as simulations of interviews, depositions, arguments, hearings, negotiations, or the like; or any other activity during the semester that can be objectively assessed and compared from one student to another.

    3. Any instructor intending to base a portion of the grade on student work product other than a final examination must make that election, set forth the criteria for the grade in writing, and distribute it to the students in the course at or before the first class meeting. No non-examination grading component criteria may be added by the instructor after the initial distribution of the criteria to the students. Previously announced non-examination grading criteria may be eliminated or changed by the instructor so long as the change is made in writing and distributed to the students before the last day of classes.

    4. When the final grades are submitted to the dean’s office, the instructor must submit a written worksheet or compilation that identifies the non-examination component(s) for each student.

  4. Instructor Option re Classroom Performance
    At the instructor’s option, assessment of classroom performance, which includes participation in class discussions and in-class exercises other than those listed in Paragraph 3, may raise or lower a student’s grade for the course by a single letter-grade step. A single letter-grade step change is a change from an A to an A+ or A-, from a B+ to an A- or B, etc. No grade of D, F, or No Pass may, however, be created or altered though an addition of or subtraction of a step as provided in this section.

7. EXAMINATIONS

Written examinations are conducted in all courses at the end of each semester, except as provided in Rule 6. ­­

  1. Time and Place for Examinations
    Examinations will be administered, according to a posted schedule, in a special period following the end of all regular class meetings. All exams must be taken during that period unless incompletes are entered for good cause. The posted schedule designates specific starting times for exams and will be issued in draft form no later than the beginning of the semester. Examinations that deviate from the time limits set in paragraph 3 below must be identified at that time. Exam questions are distributed by proctors. Students will be assigned to specific rooms, must take every other (alternate) seat in the classroom assigned, and must write the examination in that room.

  2. Proctors
    Faculty members or others hired for the purpose will be assigned as proctors for each room in which examinations are being taken. Proctors will distribute and collect exams in the assigned room and will remain in the room during the exam.

  3. Time Limits
    Examinations may be one to four hours’ duration, at the instructor’s discretion. Except in required J.D. courses, if an examination will exceed the four-hour limit, students must be advised of that fact no later than the inception of registration. The amount of time allowed will be stated on the examination itself, and this time is absolute. At the stated expiration time, all students must turn in their exams promptly to the proctor. The proctor is instructed to notify the Office of the Dean regarding the examination papers of students who continue to write past the time limit. Any student who is unavoidably late for the beginning of an examination may see the dean or the dean's designee, who may extend the deadline for that student for sufficient reason. Otherwise, a late-arriving student is limited to the original deadline set for the exam. Similarly, students who become ill during an exam should report the illness to the proctor. The proctor will collect that student’s examination materials and will report the illness to the dean, who may extend the deadline or reschedule the exam.

  4. Rescheduling of Examinations
    1. Prior to a scheduled examination, a student may request that the examination be rescheduled because of personal or family illness, an emergency, or an exam conflict. In all such instances, the student shall submit to the Office of Academic Affairs adequate and appropriate verification of the facts upon which any such request for rescheduling is based. No examination will be rescheduled to a time prior to the regularly scheduled time for the examination without the express approval of the Academic Dean and the instructor of the relevant course, and only in extraordinary circumstances.

    2. If a student has two exams in less than 24 hours (the 24-hour period is computed from the starting time for each exam), one exam will be rescheduled so that the exams will be at least 24 hours apart.

    3. Reasons of personal convenience do not warrant rescheduling examinations.

    4. Matters relating to employment do not generally warrant rescheduling of examinations. Students who are required by their employers to travel outside of the area must submit documentation of the travel requirement to the Office of Academic Affairs Office to request rescheduling.

    5. Take-home exams and paper due dates are excluded from rescheduling considerations.

  5. Failure to Appear for Scheduled Examination
    Any student who, without approved rescheduling, fails to appear for an examination at the time scheduled will receive an F for that exam.

  6. General Examination Format
    Examinations in the law school will consist of a series of questions or problems dealing with the subject matter of the course. In preparing such examinations, instructors may designate the weight- or time allocation for each question or problem.

  7. Take-Home Examinations
    An instructor may give a take-home examination in any course. Take-home exams should be distributed and returned at fixed times, and the time allotted should be neither so short nor so long as to interfere with other examinations being administered. Policies stated above with respect to deadlines, and failure to appear apply to take-home exams as well as to regular exams. In giving take-home exams, instructors should appreciate the limited resources of the law library, should avoid using the take-home format as a substitute for a term research paper, and should presume that the exam can be answered from required course materials. Take-home exams should be in the same format as regular exams and should be returnable within a maximum of 48 hours after distribution. The instructor should specify appropriate amounts of time for preparing and writing exam answers and should set maximum page or word limits for the exam.

  8. Materials in Examination Rooms
    Instructors should announce in class, advise the proctor, and indicate on the examination questions what (if any) materials students may bring into the examination room. Any other notes, books, or materials must be left outside the room during the exam.

  9. Examination Procedure
    Students are responsible for obtaining exam numbers according to procedures set by the dean’s office. Students must identify their exams only with their exam number. Students are prohibited from contacting current semester faculty between the date that the exam is administered and the date that the grades are posted in Cardinal Station.

  10. Review of Exams B- or Below
    Any student who receives a grade of B- or below in any course is strongly encouraged to meet with the instructor to review and discuss their examination and the model answer prepared by the instructor.

    The following sections of the Academic Rules for the LL.M. Program are hereby incorporated by reference: 8. Completion of Courses: Incompletes; 9. Availability of Grades; 11. Student Records and Transcripts; 13. Accommodation Under ADA; 14. Interruption of Studies; and 16. Student Conduct and Discipline.