This is both a comparative law course and an advanced constitutional law course. It focuses on the functions, characteristics, and mechanisms of national constitutions and constitutional systems. The constitutions selected for study may include those of France, Germany, England (the “unwritten” constitution), Japan, Russia, and South Africa. In addition, special emphasis will be placed on the new constitutions of the Eastern and Central European countries. Comparisons will continually be made to the United States Constitution. Topics to be addressed in comparative perspective may include judicial review and constitutional courts, the division and distribution of powers, authority to regulate domestic and international trade, emergency powers, immigration and citizenship, personal mobility (right to travel), the status and rights of racial, ethnic, and religious minorities. Attention will also be given to the concept of constitutionalism; and to the process of constitution making (or “constitutional engineering”) by which national constitutions are adopted, amended, and implemented. Limited enrollment. This course requires a qualifying course paper that fulfills one half of the upper-level writing requirement. Refer to Academic Rule X — Writing Requirement and Directed Research.