The Catholic University of America
Academic Rules
J.D. PROGRAM
I. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
II. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, COURSE WITHDRAWAL, AND DIVISION SWITCHES (OR DIVISION CHANGE)
III.
IV. LIMITATION ON SIMULTANEOUS ENROLLMENT IN OTHER DEGREE PROGRAMS
V. GRADING AND GOOD STANDING
VI. RETAKING REQUIRED COURSES
VII. PROBATION, EXCLUSION, AND READMISSION
VIII. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS
IX. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
X. EXAMINATIONS
XI. COMPLETION OF COURSES: INCOMPLETES
XII. AVAILABILITY OF GRADES AND CLASS RANKS
XIII. UPPER LEVEL WRITING REQUIREMENT
XIV. PROFESSIONAL SKILLS REQUIREMENT
XV. TRANSITION TO PRACTICE REQUIREMENT
XVI. PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION REQUIREMENT
XVII. STUDENT RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTS
XVIII. COURSES OUTSIDE THE LAW SCHOOL DURING THE REGULAR SCHOOL YEAR
XIX. SUMMER & INTERSESSION COURSES AT OTHER LAW SCHOOLS
XX. INTERRUPTION OF STUDIES
XXI. STUDENT CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE
XXII. BAR EXAMINATIONS
XXIII. CREDIT THAT MUST BE EARNED IN REGULARLY SCHEDULED LAW SCHOOL CLASS SESSION
XXIV. CLINICAL COURSES
XXV. TRANSFER OF CREDIT POLICY
XXVI. ADVANCED STANDING FOR GRADUATES OF FOREIGN LAW PROGRAMS
XXVII. STUDENT COMPLAINTS REGARDING COMPLIANCE WITH THE ABA STANDARDS
LL.M. PROGRAM
I. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
II. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, AND WITHDRAWAL
III. GRADING
IV. GOOD STANDING, PROBATION, EXCLUSION, AND READMISSION
V. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS
VI. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
VII. EXAMINATIONS
VIII. COMPLETION OF COURSES: INCOMPLETES
IX. AVAILABILITY OF GRADES
X. WRITING REQUIREMENT
XI. STUDENT RECORDS AND TRANSCRIPTS
XII. COURSES OUTSIDE THE LAW SCHOOL
XIII. ACCOMMODATION UNDER ADA
XIV. INTERRUPTION OF STUDIES
XV. AUDITS
XVI. STUDENT CONDUCT AND DISCIPLINE
XVII. BAR EXAMINATIONS
XVIII. TRANSFER OF CREDIT
XIX.   STUDENT COMPLAINTS REGARDING COMPLIANCE WITH THE ABA STANDARDS
M.L.S. PROGRAM
I. DEGREE REQUIREMENTS
II. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, WITHDRAWAL, TRANSFER CREDIT
III.
IV. GOOD STANDING, PROBATION, EXCLUSION AND READMISSION
V. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS
VI. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
VII. EXAMINATIONS

 

J.D. PROGRAM

The Academic Rules at the date of publication are listed below. From time to time, the faculty may promulgate new rules, alter, or amend the existing Rules. Students are considered to be on notice of changes or additions to these Rules when they are approved by the faculty and posted on the website of The Catholic University of America Columbus School of Law. To the extent permitted, in extraordinary cases, exceptions to these Rules may be granted by the Dean or the Academic Dean for good cause shown.
 
Throughout these Rules, “Dean” shall refer to the Dean of the Law school (or his or her designee) and “Academic Dean” shall refer to the Associate Dean for Academic Affairs (or his or her designee). All other references to the “Office of Academic Affairs” shall refer to the person or office within the Office of Academic Affairs charged with that particular responsibility.
 
Throughout these Rules, “First Year Courses” shall refer to those courses required in the first two semesters of full-time study, or the first three semesters of part-time study.
 
Throughout these Rules, “CUA Law” shall refer to the Columbus School of Law at the Catholic University of America.   “CUA” shall refer to the Catholic University of America.

 
To be eligible for the degree of Juris Doctor, a student must complete the following requirements during a period, not more than 84 months after the student has started at the law school or a law school from which CUA has accepted transfer credit:
 
a. Earn at least 84 semester hours of credit while maintaining a cumulative average of at least 2.15 and a semester average of at least 1.82 (students admitted 2003 through fall 2010) or maintaining a cumulative average of at least 2.25 and a semester average of at least 1.82 (students admitted fall 2011 and subsequently);
 
b. Satisfactorily complete all First Year Courses.
 
c. Satisfactorily complete the Upper Level Writing Requirement (see Academic Rule XIII);
 
d. Satisfactorily complete the Professional Skills Requirement (see Academic Rule XIV);
 
e. Satisfactorily complete the Professional Responsibility and Constitutional Law II courses;
 
f. Satisfactorily complete the Transition-to-Practice Requirement (see Academic Rule XV);
 
g.  Attend six professional education programs during their time in law school (see Academic Rule XVI);

h.  Meet the minimum residency requirement. Residency means the number of semesters that a student must attend at CUA Law. A semester is defined as a fall or spring academic term. Summer school is not a semester. Students enrolled in the full-time program must attend six semesters. Full-time students who attend one CUA Law summer session of three or more credits may switch to part-time status in their final semester. Students enrolled in the part-time program must attend eight semesters. Part-time students who attend two CUA Law summer sessions of four or more credits may accelerate their graduation by one semester (i.e. complete coursework by the end of their seventh semester). A part-time student who switches to the full-time division at the end of the first year of law school may graduate after six semesters.


II. REGISTRATION, COURSE LOADS, COURSE WITHDRAWAL, AND DIVISION SWITCHES (OR DIVISION CHANGES)

A. Registration Dates
 
Registration dates are listed in the Academic Calendar. Students who fail to register for any courses prior to the first day of class incur a late registration fee. Students may add or drop courses through the Add/Drop period listed on the Academic Calendar. No course may be added after the Add/Drop deadline.
 
B. Course Loads
 
A full-time student may not enroll for more than 16 or fewer than 12 credit hours per semester; a part-time student may not enroll for more than 11 hours or fewer than 8 credit hours per semester. Students who seek to deviate from these course load limits must seek written permission from the Office of Academic Affairs.
 
C. Course Withdrawals
 
Students are permitted to withdraw from an elective course after the Add/Drop deadline but before mid-semester as long as the resulting course load remains within the limitations specified in Rule II(B) supra. Students who wish to withdraw from an elective course after mid-semester must request permission of both the course instructor and the Office of Academic Affairs. Approval will ordinarily not be given if the resulting course load is below that specified in Rule II(B) supra. In no event will withdrawals be authorized after the last day of class for that semester.
 

D. Auditing of Classes

Students may enroll on an “audit” basis for elective courses. Students enrolled on an “audit” basis do not take the examination or participate in any other graded exercises in the class and do not receive credit toward the J.D. for the audited class. The limitations of Rule II(B) supra apply (i.e. the audited class shall not cause the student to exceed the maximum number of allowed credit  hours and the student must retain the minimum number of required credit hours toward the J.D.). Auditors are not excused from class attendance requirements.

E. Changing Divisions

Switches or changes between part-time and full-time divisions are permitted by written application to the Office of Academic Affairs. Normally a student will be permitted to switch between or change divisions only once during his or her law school career.


Students enrolled in more than 12 credit hours per semester shall work no more than 20 hours per week. Students desiring to work more than 20 hours per week may not remain in full-time status and should contact the Office of Academic Affairs regarding the possibility of switching to the part-time division.
 
 IV. LIMITATION ON SIMULTANEOUS ENROLLMENT IN OTHER DEGREE PROGRAMS
 
Due to the intensive nature of law study, students may simultaneously enroll in another degree program outside CUA Law only with the prior approval of the Academic Dean. This prohibition does not apply to students enrolled in a CUA Law joint degree program with another department of CUA.

 V. GRADING AND GOOD STANDING

A. Grades:
 
Grades for all students will be based on the following letter-grade scale: A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C, C-, D, F (Failure), F* (Administrative Failure)
The grade of F* should be given to students who did not officially withdraw from the course, but who failed to attend and participate in course activities through the last day of classes.
 
Letter-based grades will be converted to numerical values to calculate grade point averages, to determine class rank, and to determine academic status as follows: A+=4.33; A=4.0; A-=3.67; B+=3.33; B=3.0; B-=2.67; C+=2.33; C=2.0; C-=1.67; D=1.0; F=0; F*=0.
 
B.  Good Standing:

The faculty revised the Good Standing criteria in academic year 2010–2011. The change is effective for the class entering CUA Law in fall 2011and subsequently.
 
1. To be in good standing, students who entered CUA Law before fall 2011 must:
 
a.  maintain a cumulative average of at least 2.15; and
 
b. attain a semester average of at least 1.82 for each semester.

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A student whose cumulative average falls below 2.15 or whose average falls below 1.82 for any semester is placed on probation (see Rule VII: Probation, Exclusion, and Readmission).
 
2. To be in good standing students who entered CUA Law fall 2011 and subsequently must:

                        a. maintain a cumulative average of at least 2.25; and
 
                        b. attain a semester average of at least 1.82 for each semester.
 
A student whose cumulative average falls below 2.25, or whose average falls below 1.82 for any semester, is placed on probation. (see  Rule VII: Probation, Exclusion and Readmission).
 
C. First-year Students: Academic Standing

1. Exclusion:  A student whose cumulative average for the first year is below 1.82, and whose average for the spring semester is less than 2.25, will be excluded from CUA Law.
 
2.  Probation:  A student whose cumulative average for the first year is below 1.82 but whose average for the spring semester is at least 2.25 will be placed on probation and must then attain an average of at least 2.25 for each semester subsequently and must raise his or her cumulative average to 2.25 by the end of the second semester on probation or be excluded. A student whose cumulative average for the first year is below 2.25, but not below 1.82, will be placed on probation.
 
3. Class Rank: Academic standing and class rank for first-year students in both the full-time and part-time division will be based on all work completed in the first two semesters. Students will not be ranked at the completion of the first year unless all required courses have been completed and the student does not have any incomplete grades at the time of ranking.
 
D. Summer School:
 
Summer school is not a semester. Summer school grades are computed with grades for the succeeding regular semester.
 
E. Students at Academic Risk
 
Students who enter CUA Law in fall 2011 and subsequently who, after the first semester of law school, have a GPA below 2.33, will be notified that they are academically at risk. This notification will be by letter and will not appear on the academic transcript.
 
F. Students with GPA below 2.25 Precluded from Participating in Journal Writing Competition
 
Students who have a GPA below 2.25 will not be allowed to participate in the Journal Writing Competition.
 
G.  Standards of Grade Distribution

1. The faculty acknowledges the importance of applying grading standards consistently, particularly in required courses, to protect the integrity of those standards as a reliable measure of student performance and to assure that students’ academic averages and class rankings are truly comparable.
 
2.  Where the credentials of entering students have been balanced across sections, as in the first year, or where there is a sufficiently large sample of students in a class, there is no empirical basis to justify widely divergent medians, means, or distributions of grades among those sections and classes. CUA Law, therefore, prescribes mean/median ranges for its courses. This rule applies to first-year courses, upper-division courses, and seminars and clinics. CUA Law prohibits the faculty from submitting grades that are widely divergent from these prescribed ranges. However, under certain circumstances, a faculty member may submit grades that are marginally divergent. The grade ranges become merely advisory in small classes (i.e., classes where there are 16 or fewer students (see below).
 
3. The distribution of grades shall be as follows:
 
a. In all first-year courses and upper-division courses, other than seminars, clinics, and small classes covered by Rules V(G)(3)(b) and V(G)(3)(d) below, the grade distribution shall have a mean falling within a range of 3.00–3.30 and an advisory median of B/B+.
 
b. In seminars and clinics, except those covered in Rule V(G)(3)(d) below, the grade distribution shall have a mean falling within a range of 3.00–3.60 and an advisory median of B/B+. A “seminar” is a course, ordinarily of not more than 20 students, in which students have substantial responsibility for class presentations and discussion. With respect to courses in which credit is based on the submission of a supervised paper or on a supervised clinical performance, the median and mean grades shall be within the same range prescribed for seminars and clinics.
 
c. Grades at the level of exceptional (A+) will be awarded only when the student’s work for the course is of unusually high quality compared to that expected generally of law students. While grades at the level of unsatisfactory or failure (C-, D, F, or F*) may be uncommon, those grades will be awarded when the student’s work product fails to reflect minimally competent law schoolwork for the course.
                       
d. In any upper-level course where actual student enrollment is 16 or fewer or where the course enrollment cap is 16 or fewer, the mean grade ranges above become advisory rather than mandatory.
 
4. Enforcement of Distributional Ranges
 
a. Faculty members are responsible for calculating and verifying themean and median grade for each course (excluding delayed examinations/papers) and for including such information in their submission of grades. The mean and median for each course must fall within the applicable range as indicated above for the appropriate category of the course with the exception provided in Rule V(G)(4)(e) below. For purposes of computing the mean and median only, faculty members shall calculate all grades of C, C-, D or F as a 2.0. However, this has no effect on the calculation of an individual student GPA. Each student will receive the numerical value of whatever grade he or she earns in a course (i.e., an A+ will be calculated as a 4.33; an A will be calculated as a 4.0; an A- will be calculated as 3.67; a B+ will be calculated as a 3.33; a B will be calculated as a 3.0; a B- will be calculated as 2.67; a C+ as a 2.33; C as 2.0; C- as 1.67; a D as 1.0; and an F as 0). In assessing compliance, the top and bottom of the range is the number taken to two decimal points (e.g., 3.00 and not some fraction subject to being rounded off  thereto). Whether a mean and median falls within the published range is to be determined after the addition or subtraction of any discretionary steps.
 
b. After approval by the Academic Dean, the Registrar shall post the mean and median with the grades for all courses.
 
c.   The Academic Dean shall enforce faculty compliance with the published standards of grade distributions.. Such enforcement applies equally to all categories of courses, including electives, as well as staples and first-year courses, with the exception of small classes, covered by Rule V(G)(3)(d). For classes falling within this exception, ranges are advisory rather than mandatory.
 
d. If a faculty member submits grades outside the published range, the Academic Dean will automatically return them for appropriate adjustment. Grades not adjusted will not be posted and will not be entered into the record.
 
e. A faculty member may submit a written request for an exception to this rule, with a detailed written justification. The Academic Dean is permitted to make an exception and post grades that are not widely divergent pursuant to such a request. If a faculty member submits grades outside of the published range without the required detailed written justification, the Academic Dean will return the grades for adjustment. Grades not adjusted will not be posted and will not be entered into the record.
 
f. Transfer students will be subject to the normal academic standing requirements based on work at CUA Law.. However, transfer students will not be ranked during their attendance and will be ranked at graduation only if they complete two-thirds of the work required for the J.D., or 56 credit hours, at CUA Law.
 
g.   The procedures for appealing a failing grade are available at:  http://policies.cua.edu/academicundergrad/appealfailinggrades.cfm.
 
 VI. RETAKING REQUIRED COURSES
 
A.  Retaking Required Courses

If a student’s grade in a required course (i.e., all First Year Courses, Professional Responsibility, and Constitutional Law II) is an F or F*, the student must retake the course the next time it is offered in the student’s division. In determining which section of the course should be taken, consideration will be given to the student’s preference, but the Office of Academic Affairs will make the final decision. Both grades will show on the student’s transcript and both grades will be included in the computation of the cumulative average. A student may not retake a class in which a passing grade was received.
 
B.  Retaking Elective Courses
 
A student may retake a failed elective course. However, both grades will show on the student’s transcript and both grades will be included in the computation of the student’s cumulative average. A student may not retake a class in which a passing grade was received.
 
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A.  Probation: Cumulative Average
 
1. A student placed on probation for failure to maintain the required cumulative average of at least 2.25 (or 2.15 for students who entered CUA Law prior to 2011) must attain a semester average of 2.25 (2.15 for students who entered CUA Law prior to 2011) in the following semester or be excluded from CUA Law.
 
2. A student placed on probation also must raise his or her cumulative average to at least the required level (2.25 or 2.15 respectively) to be removed from probation. A student whose cumulative average is below the required level at the end of two successive semesters on probation will be excluded from CUA Law.
 
B.   Probation: Semester Average Below 1.82
 
A student placed on probation for attaining a semester average below 1.82 must attain an average of at least 2.25  (or 2.15 for students who entered CUA Law prior to fall 2011) in the following semester or be excluded from CUA Law.
 
C.  Required Participation in Academic Excellence Program
 
1. First Year Students: The following students are required to participate in the Academic Excellence Program: a) any student whose average for the fall semester falls within the lowest 15 percent of the class; b) any student who has received the grade of D or F in any course;  and c) any student referred by the Office of Academic Affairs. Each of these students must develop and implement a written individual academic plan approved by the Assistant Dean for Student Support. No first-year student required by this rule to participate in the Academic Excellence Program will be permitted to register for courses in the fall semester until the student provides the Office of Academic Affairs with a statement, signed by the Assistant Dean for Student Support, confirming that the requirements of this rule have been satisfied.
 
2. Upper Division Students: An upper-division student placed on probation is required to participate in the Academic Excellence Program. Such students must develop and implement a written individual academic plan approved by the Assistant Dean for Student Support. No student required by this rule to participate in the Academic Excellence Program will be permitted to register for courses in any subsequent semester until the student provides the Office of Academic Affairs with a statement signed by the Assistant Dean for Student Support confirming that the requirements of this rule have been satisfied.
 
3. All Students: In addition to the categories above, the Dean, the Academic Dean, or their designees have the discretion to mandate participation in the Academic Excellence Program on an individual basis.
 
D. Probation Will Not be Repeated
 
A student who has been restored to good standing and who subsequently attains an average of less than 1.82 for any semester, or whose cumulative average falls below 2.25 (or 2.15 for students who entered CUA Law prior to fall 2011) will be excluded from CUA Law without being given a second probation period.
 
E. Readmission Following Exclusion

1. As a general policy, students excluded for academic deficiency will not be readmitted to CUA Law. The faculty will consider an excluded student’s petition for readmission upon a showing of special circumstances affecting his or her academic performance while here or substantially changed circumstances since the exclusion.
 
2. An excluded student will be considered for readmission only once and normally will not be considered within the first year following exclusion. Any student who wishes the faculty to waive the one-year waiting period must request such waiver in writing and give reasons therefore.
 
3. An excluded student seeking readmission must be able to complete the remaining work for the degree within the maximum period of candidacy (84 months from the date the student first commenced law study).
 
4. Student representatives to the faculty and to any faculty  committees are not permitted to vote on matters pertaining to a student’s petition for readmission.
 
5.  A student who is readmitted following exclusion must, in the first year of readmission, repeat all required courses in which he or she did not previously receive grades of C or better.. Only prior work completed with grades of C or better will be applied toward degree requirements. A student’s cumulative average after the first semester following readmission will include courses completed prior to exclusion in which the student earned a grade of C or better.
 
6.  Required standards of performance following readmission differ depending on how much work has been completed at the time of exclusion:
 
a.   A student readmitted to CUA Law after  the first year of law school work must attain an average of at least 1.82 in the first semester following readmission and must  maintain a cumulative average of at least 2.25 (or 2.15 for students who initially entered CUA Law prior to fall 2011) by the end of the second semester  after readmission.
 
b.   A student readmitted to CUA Law after accumulating academic credit beyond the first year of law school work must attain an average of at least 2.25 (or 2.15 for students who initially entered CUA Law prior to fall 2011)in the first semester following readmission and must maintain a cumulative average of at least 2.25 (or 2.15 for students who initially entered CUA Law prior to fall 2011..
 
c.   A readmitted student who does not meet the required standard of performance following readmission will be excluded from CUA Law without being given a further probation period.

 VIII. CLASS ATTENDANCE AND COURSE REQUIREMENTS
A.  Class Attendance

Regular and punctual attendance at class meetings or equivalent course exercises is a condition of receiving credit in all courses. If a student misses more than two hours of class for each credit hour assigned to the course, the instructor may direct the Office of Academic Affairs to exclude the student from the course. Instructors in limited-enrollment courses (seminars, clinics, simulations, etc.) may set stricter attendance rules for those courses, including required attendance at the first or other specified class meetings.   If a student fails to meet these requirements, the instructor may direct the Office of Academic Affairs to exclude the student from the course. Each instructor is responsible for announcing and enforcing the specific attendance policy for that course.
 
Repeated exclusion from classes for violation of these rules shall be grounds for dismissal from CUA Law upon a vote of the faculty.
 
B.   Course Requirements

Individual instructors are free to determine their own teaching method and materials and whether the grade in their course will be based on examination, a research paper, a combination of the two, or pursuant to Rule IX. Individual instructors also may designate prerequisites or co-requisites for their courses.
 
 IX. COMPONENTS OF GRADE
 
A      Written Examination
 
Except as provided in sections B – D below, each student’s grade shall be based solely on anonymous written examination(s) administered pursuant to Rule X.
 
B.   Courses Exempt by Category
 
Lawyering Skills Program courses, clinical courses, externship courses, simulated lawyering skills courses, seminars, and all courses that satisfy the Writing Requirement pursuant to Rule XIII are not governed by Rule IX (A). Instructors in those courses may establish other criteria on which to base grades. The criteria must be set forth in writing and distributed to the students in the course at or before the first class meeting.
 
C.  Instructor Option Regarding Student Work Product
 
1.   In any one-semester course other than those listed in paragraph IX (B), at the instructor’s option, up to 30 percent of the final grade may be based on student work product other than the final examination. In any two-semester course other than those listed in paragraph IX (B), at the instructor’s option,up to 30 percent of the final grade may be based on student work product other than the semester-end examination(s).
 
2.  The student work product that comprises the non-examination portion of the final grade may consist of answers to written problems; research or drafting assignments; periodic quizzes; a mid-semester test; classroom demonstrations, presentations, or reports; individual or team exercises such as simulations of interviews, depositions, arguments, hearings, negotiations, or any other activity during the semester that can be objectively assessed and compared among students. 
 
3.  Any instructor intending to base a portion of the final grade on student work product other than a final examination must make that election, set forth the criteria for the grade in writing, and distribute the criteria to the students in the course at or before the first class meeting. The instructor may not add non-examination grading component criteria after the initial distribution of the criteria to the students. Previously announced non-examination grading criteria may be eliminated or changed by the instructor so long as the change is made in writing and distributed to the students before the last day of classes.
 
4.   When final grades are submitted to the Academic Affairs Office, the instructor must submit a written worksheet or compilation that identifies the non-examination component(s) for each student.
 
5. The instructor should grade the non-examination components on an anonymous basis whenever feasible.
 
D.  Instructor Option Regarding Classroom Performance

At the instructor’s option, the instructor’s assessment of classroom performance, may raise or lower a student’s grade for the course by a single letter-grade step. A single letter-grade step change is a change from an A to an A+ or A-, from a B+ to an A- or B, etc.   However, no grade of D or F may be created or altered though addition or subtraction of a step under this section. The grades for the class, including any classroom performance steps, must meet the grade distribution requirements of Rule V(G).

 X. EXAMINATIONS
 
Anonymous written examinations are conducted in all courses at the end of each semester, except as provided in Rule IX.
 
A.  Times and Place for Examinations

Examinations will be administered according to a posted schedule during a specific period following the end of all regular class meetings. All exams must be taken during that period unless a grade of “Incomplete” is entered for good cause. The posted examination schedule will designate specific starting times for exams and will be issued in draft form no later than the beginning of the semester. Examinations that deviate from the time limits set in Rule X(C) below must be identified at that time.
 
B.   Proctors

Faculty members or others hired for the purpose of administering examinations will be assigned as proctors for each room in which examinations are being taken. Proctors will distribute and collect exams in the assigned room and will remain in the room during the exam.
 
C.  Time Limits for Examinations

The duration of all in-class examinations will be between one and four hours, as determined by the instructor.  In non-required courses, an in-class examination may exceed the four-hour limit on the condition that students are advised of that longer duration no later than the first day of class.
 
The amount of time allowed will be stated on the examination itself, and this time is absolute. At the stated expiration time, all students must turn in all examination materials promptly to the proctor. The proctor is instructed to notify the Office of Academic Affairs regarding the examination papers of students who continue to write past the time limit. Any student who is unavoidably late for the beginning of an examination may see the Academic Dean or the Academic Dean’s designee, who may extend the deadline for that student for sufficient reason. Similarly, students who become ill during an exam should report the illness to the proctor. The proctor will collect that student’s examination materials and will report the illness to the Academic Dean or the Academic Dean’s designee, who may extend the deadline or reschedule the exam.
 
D.  Rescheduling of Examinations

1.  Students may request the rescheduling of examinations because of personal or family illness, an emergency, or an exam conflict. Any rescheduling will be to the earliest possible date following the originally scheduled time at which all other rescheduled students will be available to take the examination. No examination will be rescheduled to a time prior to the time at which the examination period starts. Examinations will be rescheduled in advance of the regularly scheduled time only in  extraordinary circumstances. In these instances, the affected instructor will be consulted by the Academic Affairs Office prior to making such an accommodation.
 
2.  If a student has two exams in less than 48 hours (the 48-hour period is computed from the starting time for each exam), one exam will be rescheduled so that the exams will be at least 48 hours apart.
 
3. Reasons of personal convenience do not warrant rescheduling examinations.
 
4. Matters relating to employment do not generally warrant rescheduling of examinations. Students who are required by their employers to travel outside of the area may submit documentation of the travel requirement to the Academic Affairs Office to request rescheduling
 
5.  Take-home exams and paper due dates are excluded from rescheduling considerations.
 
E.  Failure to Appear for Scheduled Examination

Any student who, without approved rescheduling, fails to appear for an examination at the time scheduled will receive an F for that exam.
 
F. General Examination Format

Examinations will consist of a series of questions or problems dealing with the subject matter of the course. In preparing examinations, instructors may designate the weight or timeallocation for each question or problem.
 
G.  Take-Home Examinations

An instructor is permitted to give a take-home examination in any course. Take-home exams should be distributed and returned at fixed times, and the time allotted should be neither so short nor so long as to interfere with other examinations being administered. Policies stated above with respect to deadlines, and failure to appear apply to both in-school and take-home exams. Instructors should avoid using the take-home format as a substitute for a term research paper, and should write the exam in a manner so that it can be answered from required course materials.
 
Take-home exams should be written in the same format as regular exams and should be returnable within a maximum of 48 hours after distribution. The instructor should specify appropriate amounts of time for preparing and writing exam answers and should set maximum page or word limits for the exam.
 
H.  Materials in Examination Rooms

Instructors should announce in class, advise the proctor, and indicate on the examination questions what  materials, if any,  students may bring into the examination room. Any other notes, books, or materials must be placed out of reach. Cell phones must be turned off and placed with other materials out of reach. Students are allowed to use earplugs during the exam. Students are not allowed to use the headphones from any electronic device.
I.  Anonymity of Examinations

Examinations are taken and graded anonymously. Students are responsible for obtaining exam numbers according to procedures set by the Office of Academic Affairs.  Students must identify their exams using only their exam number. To preserve grading anonymity, students are prohibited from contacting current semester faculty on grade-related matters between the date that the exam is administered and the date that the grades are posted in Cardinal Station.
 
J.  Review of Exams C+ or Below

Any student who receives a grade of C+ or below in any course is required to meet with the instructor to review and discuss the examination and the model answer prepared by the instructor. For grades received in the spring term, this review must occur no later than four weeks after the start of fall classes. For grades received in the fall term, this review must occur no later than six weeks after the start of spring classes. No student required to review an examination by this rule will be permitted to register for courses taken in the semester subsequent to the semester when the grade was posted unless the student provides the Office of Academic Affairs with a statement signed by the instructor assigning the grade of C+ or below, confirming that this requirement has been satisfied. The limitation on registering for courses shall apply up to, but not including, the registration period for courses to be taken in the last semester of the student's legal study.
 
 
A.  Students in all courses are expected to complete their coursework within the semester in which the course is offered. In examination courses this means taking the exam at the time scheduled. In courses in which research papers comprise all or part of the coursework, such papers must be submitted at the times fixed by the instructor, but in no event later than the last day of scheduled exams for the semester.
 
B. When a student is unable to complete the course requirements (other than examinations) on the due date because of illness or other hardship, the student should advise the instructor promptly. The instructor may then direct the entry of a grade of “Incomplete” for the course. Incomplete grades must be made up at a time determined by the instructor and, in any event, no later than mid-semester of the following semester, as noted in the Academic Calendar. Incomplete grades shall be used only in extraordinary cases and shall not be used when the student simply has failed to complete coursework. A student whose transcript reflects a grade of incomplete will not be officially ranked. Failure to complete coursework on the due date or, in the case of an incomplete, by the middle of the following semester, will result in the entry of a grade of F for the course.
 
C. No grade of “Incomplete” may be given for Summer School courses.
 
 
A. Availability of Grades

            Final course grades are available through Cardinal Students.
 
B.  Class Rank

Class ranks for J.D. students will be computed after each spring semester and upon graduation. Students completing their degrees in summer or mid-year will be ranked with J.D. students finishing in the following May. Transfer students will not be ranked during law school, and will be ranked at graduation only if they complete at least two thirds of the required credits for the J.D., i.e., 56 credits, at CUA Law.
 
C.  Grade Changes

All course grades are considered final once submitted to the Office of Academic Affairs. The Academic Dean may change an otherwise final grade only on written certification from the instructor that either: (1) the final grade reflects an incorrect mathematical computation or recordation or (2) in determining the particular exam or paper grade, the instructor evaluated the student’s work differently from that of all others in the course. (The latter criterion does not contemplate changes in the classroom performance [Rule IX(D)] portion of any final grade).
 
No final grade will be changed merely to restore a student to good standing, to assure academic credit for the course, or to improve class rank at this institution or any other; or because, on review, the instructor is persuaded the student had a better (or worse) grasp of the course material than the exam or paper evidenced on its face.
 
In no event may any final grade be changed unless the instructor’s written certification reaches the Academic Dean by the middle of the semester following that for which the grade was entered.
 
D.  Submission of Grades
 
Instructors are expected to submit final course grades as soon as possible. Grades are to be submitted no later than three weeks from the conclusion of the examination period. Instructors who are responsible for submitting one hundred or more final grades in a particular semester may request an extension of up to one week from the Academic Dean. In order to award honors at graduation, grades of graduating students in their last semester must be submitted at a time to be designated by the Academic Dean.
            E. Dean’s List
 
At the end of the first year of legal study, students whose cumulative GPA is in the top third of their class and division will be honored by inclusion on the Dean’s List. At the end of each fall and spring semester thereafter, students whose cumulative GPA for the semester is in the top third of the class and the division in which they are enrolled for that semester will be honored by inclusion on the Dean’s List.   Students are not eligible for inclusion on the Dean’s List if, in the relevant semester, they failed to carry the minimum credits required for the division in which they are enrolled for that semester, if they are visiting away, or if there is an “Incomplete” grade recorded for that semester. Although they will not be ranked in their class until graduation, transfer students are eligible for Dean’s List honors for any semester in which they satisfy all the conditions above. For purposes of Dean’s List recognition, any grades earned during summer school will be included with those grades earned during the fall semester.
 
            F.  Latin Honors
 
Beginning with the graduating class of 1994, CUA Law awards academic honors to graduating J.D. students. The basis for the award of honors are: summa cum laude (top student in the evening division and top three students in the day division); magna cum laude (top 10 percent of the graduating class in each division); and cum laude (top one-third of the graduating class in each division.)
 
 XIII.   UPPER LEVEL WRITING REQUIREMENT
 
A.  Introduction

Each student must complete at least two substantial writing projects after the first year of law school. These project